Formative Assessment
  • Designed by teachers for classroom instruction
  • Several Sources of information
  • Strong link to curriculum and instruction
  • Valid for guiding instruction
  • Profile reliability – strengths and weaknesses
  • Sensitive to changed in performance
  • Judgmental, quick turnaround, flexible
  • Performance-based “real” task
  • Continuously, as needed
Summative Assessment
  • Designed by experts for policy makers
  • Stand alone, single indicator
  • Independent of curriculum and instruction
  • Predictive validity to other tests
  • Total test reliability – one score
  • Stable over time and situations
  • Objective, cost and time efficient, standardized
  • Multiple-choice, “school” task
  • Once or sometimes twice per year




Assessment as inquiry
It is easy to build a test that fails students; it is much more difficult to find ways to discover what students know and can do. Developing this sensitivity requires the teacher to act as a researcher, creating situations that support success and provide a starting point for instruction.
Assessment as Development
Students are not identical peas in a pod, and assessment must adapt to individual differences.
Progress monitoring
Monitoring students’ growth and learning.
Balanced Assessment
There is a wide spectrum of assessment strategies: objective or subjective, formal or informal, prepackaged or judgment-based. In your role as a classroom teacher, you confront the practical question of how to achieve a balance that makes effective use of this full range of strategies.
The Roots Project
It was an experiment, where the teacher expected to stretch her students, but was genuinely surprised by their accomplishments. In planning and carrying out the assessment, she played the role of a researcher: She developed a design, tried some innovative methods, collected data, and reflected on the results.
A graduated scoring guide with criteria for each score level, something like a letter grade but without the letters, and with instructions about the meaning of each level on the scale.
Teacher-Made Tests
Range from multiple- choice to short-answer tests.  Teachers adapt these assessment techniques to meet classroom needs is the key.
Criterion-referenced tests
Include basal tests and tests designed by school districts for local achievement monitoring.
Tests that measure individual student standing relative to others—“grading on the curve”.
Running record
A teacher records on paper an individual student’s oral reading behavior as the student reads a short passage, typically between 100 and 200 words
Informal reading inventory
The Informal Reading Inventory is an on-going assessment, and should be completed several times throughout the child’s schooling.  It measures:

  • Grade level reading
  • Fluency
  • Comprehension
  • Vocabulary
  • Oral reading accuracy