What is the Language Approach and Learning Approach for Audio Lingualism Method?
Language: Structural Linguistics
Learning: Behaviorist Psychology
What are the language and learning approaches for Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)?
Language: Expression of meaning, interaction/communication, functional & communicative uses.
Learning: Three Principles: Communication, task, meaningfulness; or cognitive/behavioral/practice
What are the language and learning approaches for the Natural Approach (NA)?
Language: Vocabulary structures, communicating meaning, messages.
Learner: 5 hypothesis: Acquisition/learning, Monitor, Input, Natural order, and affective filter
What are the language and learner approaches used in Total Physical Response (TPR)?
Language: structure, vocabulary, verbs.
Learning: behaviorist S-R- bio program, lateralization, stress-reduction.
What are the language and learning approaches for Input Processing?
Language: as meaning bearing structure
Learning: acquisition + meaning – bearing input (MBI) + Input processing + Negotiation of meaning.
What are the language and learning approaches for Content Based Instruction (CBI)?
Language: text and discourse based, integrated skills, purposeful use.
Learning: learning through acquiring info; goal directed, needs-based, previous experience.
Approaches in Language and Learning for Task-Based-Instruction (TBI)?
Language: a means of making meaning; structural, functional, and interactional models of languages, lexical unis as central use and learning; conversational focus
Learning: CLT principles: meaningful task, real communication, meaningfulness; tasks w/ input + output processing; motivation from task activity & achievement; learning difficulty can be negotiated through fine-tuning.
Approaches in language and learning for Competency-based Language Teaching?
Language: functional and interactional perspectives on language; language in the social context of use
Learning: language form can be inferred from language function; can predict likely vocab and structures needed. “Mosiac” approach to learning. Whole communicative competence is constructed from smaller parts.
Learner roles, teacher roles, and materials for ALM?
Learners: responsive
Teacher: Director, in control
Materials: Tapes, books
Learner roles, teacher roles, and materials for CLT?
Learner: Negotiator
Teacher: Facilitator, participant, needs analyst, and manager
Materials: Texts, and task-based realia
Learner roles, teacher roles, and materials for NA?
Learner: Processor, pre-production to speech emergence
Teacher: CI source, facilitator
Materials: Meaningful realia, games
Learner roles, teacher roles, and materials for TPR?
Learner: Listener and performer
Teacher: Director, in control
Material: Realia
Learner roles, teacher roles, and materials for Input Processing?
Learner: active, negotiators
Teacher: Input source, negotiator, facilitator
Materials: SI, So tasks
Learner and teacher roles + materials for CBI?
Learner: Independent, learn by doing, collaborative learning.
Teaching: Content expert, materials adapter, comprehensibility of material.
Materials: Comprehensible and authentic L1 learning guides
Learner, teacher roles and materials for TBI?
Learner: Participant, monitor, risk taker, and innovator
TEacher: Selector and sequencer of tasks, preparer of learners, consciousness raiser
Materials: Tasks, texts, and authentic reali
Learner, teacher and materials for Competency Based Language Teaching?
Learner: performer of subtasks, controls rate of individual progress.
Teacher: organizer, facilitator, assessor of progress
Materials: Competency-based tasks
Listening: Two Functions
Interactional (Social/personal)
Transactional (message)
Listening: Three Modes
Bi-directional
Uni-directional
Auto-directional
Listening: Three types of processing
Top-down
Bottom-up
Interactive (most common)
Listening: Four Principles
Relevance (Content and Outcome)
Transferability (Content and Outcome)
Task Orientation (Use)
Task ask Orientation (Analysis)
Listening: Six Outcomes
Performance
Transferability
Solve
Evaluate/Manipulate
Negotiate
Enjoyment
Speaking: 3 Purposes
Psycho-scoial (relationship building)
Information cognitive (everything else)
Language analysis (ALM memorization)
Speaking: Two Focuses
Accuracy
Fluency
Speaking: Four Competencies
Grammatical
Sociolinguistic
Strategic
Discourse
Speaking: 5 Outcomes
Transferability
Problem Solving
Evaluation
Negotiation
Enjoyment
Reading: Three Processes
Top down
Bottom up
Interactional
Reading: Two Schemata
Content schema (topic knowledge, word knowledge)
Formal schema
Reading: Four Competencies
Grammatical
Sociolinguistic
Discourse
Strategic (in terms of fixing broken communication)
Implementation of Pre-reading
Previewing, Predicting, Text Surveying, Skimming, Answering Key questions, exploring key vocabulary, reflecting/reviewing
Implementation: While-reading
Outlining key ideas, summarizin, examining emotions/attitudes, monitoring (determining difficult sources), monitoring (Seeking clarification), answering pre-reading ?s, and predicting what will come
Post-reading
Completing a graphic organizer, expanding/changing a semantic map, comparing information, ranking importance of information
Scanning
Answering inference, comprehension, applciaiton, and evaluative questions