Fragile X Syndrome
A restriction at the end of the X chromosome that may result in intellectual or learning disability.
Tiered assignment
Assignment of greater or lesser difficulty to students to match their level of possible attainment
Developmental delays
Each state defines what constitutes a “developmental delay” across five domains: cognitive, communicative, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive development.

Based on the state’s definition, children with developmental delays and their families qualify for early intervention supports and services.

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
A learning approach that is based on individual analysis of a student’s functioning and relies on the learning of behaviors to remediate learning problems.
Learned helplessness
the belief that nothing one does can prevent negative things from happening
individualized education program
A program written for ever student receiving special education; it describes the child’s current performance and goals for the school year, the particular sped services to be delivered, and the procedures by which outcomes are to be evaluated
positive behavior intervention ; supports
An approach to intervention based on behavior science principles and meant to replace punitive measures for behavior control.

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It includes functional assessments, positive interventions, and evaluative measures to assess programs

Theory of Mind
A condition where children are unable to put themselves in the place of others in order to understand what they are feeling or thinking. This inability leads to predictable social problems.
Pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified
These are autistism-like conditions that do not fulfill all of the diangostic characteristics for autism, but show strong resemblance in terms of social and communication problems inccreasingly referred to as autistic spectrum disorders, reflecting the variations found in these conditions
Pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified
These are autistism-like conditions that do not fulfill all of the diangostic characteristics for autism, but show strong resemblance in terms of social and communication problems inccreasingly referred to as autistic spectrum disorders, reflecting the variations found in these conditions
Intellectual and developmental disabilities
significant delay in development and adaptive behavior, formerly known as mental retardation
Integrated curriculum
Curriculum that incorporates advanced content, higher order thinking, and experiences build around major themes, problems, or real world applications.
Comprehensive treatment models
A group of interventions that address the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and are presented over a time of a year or more with intensive treatment. Examples include UCLA Young Autisum Program and TEACHH)
Problem-based learning
A problem that encourages the student to define the issue, organize the components, and then solve the problem.
A multi-level approach to helping children face difficulties in school.

Proposes a range of interventions from general classroom to special education

Progress monitoring
Using data (such as test results or performance on screening measures) on student’s achievement, performance, and other needs to moniort progress, guide decision-making, and plan for future needs.
Free and Appropriate Public EducationFAPE
The courts have affirmed that children with exceptionalities are guaranteed the right to an eduation provided bu the state that is suitable to their needs.
Individuals with disabilities actIDEA
The law originally passed in 1975 as PL 94-142 and reauthorized in 2004, addressing the school’s responsibility to children with exceptionalities in the classroom
Intervening hierarchy
A model for organizing intervention strategies from least to most intensive.

The model has three or more tiers; Tier 1 is a high-quality general learning environment, and the additional tiers provide more help for students whose needs require more intensive supports

Multidisciplinary team
a group of professionals who work together to help plan and carry out intervnetion or treatment for children with disbilities to help them achieve their full potential
twice exceptional
presence of both giftedness and an area of disability
Short answer #1 (There is no question for number one)
 Still made a card
Short answer #2 Why does poverty increase the risk that a child will experience developmental delays?
events during pregnancy and birth, environmental risk- poor prenatal care, malnourishment of mother, harmful substancesLackof medical care, poor housing, nutrition, family stress
Short answer #3 What is the new defintion of ASD as outlined in the DSM-V and what are some concerns related to it?
ASD is a variety of related disorders that affect a child’s social development and ability to communicate and that invludes unusual behavioral manifestations such as repetitive motor movements New: there is now just one category ASD concerns: those with high functioning may nit be limiting and impairing everyday functioning and may not meet diagnosis criteria, may have trouble getting services, social comm disorders has started to show up for students hwo have autism-like qualities, but fall short of meeting criteria
Short answer #4 Identify components of behavioral support plans
Components:find the antecedents/triggers, examine the behavior itself, examine consequences, strategies to minimize triggers and teach replacement behaviors.
Short answer #5 How has legislation supported the belief that all children, whatever their circumstances, deserve an education?
IDEA in 1975- all students with disabilities receive public education and related services.Later amendments provided federal funds for states to provide services, ensure quality of sped personnel, IEP standards, and transition education Section 504- it is illegal to deny participation in activities or programs oslely because of disability. Ind with disabilities have equal access to programs and services Americans with disabilities act 1992- extends civil rights
Short answer #6 How can we modify curriculum to challenge students with special gifts and talents? Why are these modifications useful?
curriculum should be on higher level thinking.

AP and IB courses for high schoolsCommon core standards can adapt for gifted learners.Curriculum compacting- if students already know something, they should be able to move onto other areas, move when ready and not have to waitProblem-based learning- solution not stated, have to solve 

Short answer #7 Describe a surface behavioral intervention that can be used in the classroom and share a situation in which it would be appropriate?
Clear communication, routine, visual displays, choral response, positively stated rules, high expectations, positive student-teacher rapport,
Short answer #8 How does the child with exceptionalities affect the immediate family: the parents and the siblings?
parents may be in denial, shock, feel guilty.It may be challenging to provide daily care such as feeding and dressing.Parents worry about future of child.Siblings may feel neglected or resentful or simply not understand why their sibling is different from them.

Short answer #9 What infromation is included in an individualized education plan? Be as detailed and specific as possible.
Demographics, classification, CSE meeting information, past evaluation reports, assessment scores, related service staff names, present level of academic performance, student strengths and preferences, social development, physical development, management needs, measurable goals, programs and services, supplementary aids, assistive technology, accomodations, least restrictive environment, transportation, etc.Anticipate frequency, location, duration of supports
Short answer #10 Which professionals might be on a multidisciplinary child study team? Create an exhaustive list.
Gen ed teacherSpecial ed teacherSpeech language pathologistSocial workerTeacher’s AideOccupational therapistPsychologistCommittee chairSpecial teacher
Short answer #11 Which educational responses are needed to support children with speech, language, and communication disorders?
Heterogenous group with a wide variety of strengths and weaknesses, most served within gen ed setting,
Short answer #12 How is RtI used to identify students with learning disabilities?
Short answer #13 What are some of the pros and cons of using medication to address the needs of students with ADHD?
Prior to the 1930’s support for children with severe disabilities was
Early childhood intervention was designed to
promote optimal development for young children with developmental delays and/or disabilities
Although early learning is important, the brain remains equally plastic throughout our lives
In general, soeech and communication problems can be
remediated or markedly improved through early intervention
What is always a part of an early intervention program
parent involvement
Caution is required in deciding whether an infant is developmentally delayed becasue
infants develop at different rates
The intensity of support for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities is measured as
intermittent, limited, extensive and pervasive
In order to be identified as having an intellectual and developmental disability, an individual must have significant limitations in
both intellectual ability and adaptive skills
Executive function impairment common in children with IDD causes children with IDD to have difficulty with
making good judgements
Self-sufficiency in the commmunoty, the ability to interacct with others, and the ability to maintain employment are assessed by means of
adaptive behavior scales
Orthopedic impairment is a category of disability recognized by PL-94-142 (IDEA,2004)
ADHD is a category of disability recognized by PL-94-142, (IDEA)
Least Restrictive Environment is a provision of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
According to special education legislation parental participation is discouraged
What is meant by disproportionate representation in Special Education?
when a group (ex. black or asian) of students are either overrepresented or underrepresented in special education (based on the ratio of kids in special ed to kids who are typical in the population as a whole)
Name three components of an IEP
A classificationYearly goalslist of accomodations/modifications
Although they may share some common characteristics, children who have learning disabilities represent a wide range of needs and abilities
What does twice exceptional mean?
a disability and and giftedness
IDEA 2004 added an alternative method to evaluate children with a learning disability. The new method examines how the child resoibds to scientific, research-based intervention.

This new method is called

Response to Intervention Approach
The U.S. Department of Education (2004) does not incude __________ as a specific learning disabiloty
behavioral disabilities
Many children with learning disabilities show a discrepancy between potential and achievement an example of this would be
a 5th grader reading at the 4th grade level but scored above average on an IQ test
The key components of the RTI model include
an intervening hierarchy, standard protocol, collaborative problem solving and progress monitoring
A specialist in language pragmatics studies
the ways language is used in a variety of contexts
Communication requires the following
a sender, a message, and a reciever
Language involves_____________ which is taking in language based information and _______ giving out verbal information and producing language
reception; expression
Language aquisition is closely related to
the interaction fo a child and his or her caregivers
educational supports specifically for children with hyperactivity and/or attention problems have existed since the late 1800s
IDEA 2004 classifies ADHD under which disability category
Other Health Impairments
Why are boys more likely than girls to be identified as having ADHD?
Girls are more likely to display inattention without hyperactivity, making them easier to overlook
What class of medication is most often prescribed to children with ADHD
Kara’s IEP requires that she work with a reading specialist to address the reading difficulties caused by her ADHD and LD. This intervention is an example of which tier of the RTI model
This could occur at any Tier but is most likely being employed at Tier III
What can increase engagement with academic tasks for students with ADHD
movement and other kinesthetic learning strategies
The federal definition for a student with EBD places all the responsibiity for the problem on the
Two dimensions of be considered in distinguishing between normal and problem behaviors are
intensity and duration
Students with intense behavioral needs may be evaluated using an _____ and a_____ can then be created to address their behavioral needs
Acting out Aggressively often and intensely could be considered an
externalizing disorder
How do the cultural values of parents of students with and without disabilities addect educational programming
What is the role of the courts in determining what is fair, just and equitable for students with exeptionalities
Prior to the 1930s, support for children with secere disabilities was
provided in large, state-run hopital-like institutions