Eugenics is the belief in improving the human race. There are two forms of eugenics positive is wanting healthy people with desirable traits to have children. Negative eugenics is keeping people with disabilities from reproducing, so bad genes do not get passed down from parents to children. This does not only included sociological traits but also physical traits. Positive eugenics involved education, tax incentives and childbirth stipends these things were used to encourage positive eugenic couples to have babies. They wanted to convince couples through the education system to have more kids, they lowered taxes just for them and even gave them money for every eugenic child that they had. It is clear that having these eugenics were ideal because of all the good things it brought your family. What if you did not have the ideal traits though? Negative eugenics involved the restriction on marriage, segregation, sexual sterilization, and in some cases euthanization. The same way they wanted to prevent interracial offsprings, they also wanted to prevent the marriage of people with negative conditions that could be hereditary. These laws did not do much, so eugenicist wanted something more forceful. Because the negatives were believed to be deadweight for society, many people asked themselves; Why should the better humans have to pay for the weak, physically and mentally incapable? Was this a justification for their ratification? Did this era of eugenics fix anything at all? Eugenics movement first started to make an appearance in the 20th century. Made by Francis Galton in 1883, eugenicists believe that the “defective” should not be able to have children and should be isolated. Sterilization was thought to be the most humane way of stopping the “defected” from having offsprings, the preferred form of sterilization was vasectomies for males and tubal ligations for females. People that would be immediately sterilized is everyone in jails, asylums, and anyone considered a “defective”. There were a lot of people who supported this idea of eugenics.In the 19th century, some scientist believed that a bad environment could cause undesirable heredities. Sociologist, Richard Dugdale believed that good environments could transform people with degenerate heredity into worthy citizens within three generations, but in 1915 A.H Estabrook tested one of Dugdale’s cases involving The Jukes for himself and saw little improvement. William Bateson from Great Britain and Thomas Hunt from The United States Of America, both, disapprove and shunned eugenics as a vulgar and an unproductive study. However, both Bateson and Morgan helped in the field of basic genetics. Ironically their studies quickly became accepted by the scientist that were involved in this vulgar research. During this time a big fear for eugenicists was that people with the “good” genes were only said to come from small families, and the “good” couples were only having about two kids. While people with “bad” genes were said to be from big families, and “bad” couples were having anywhere from four to eight kids. They feared soon that the defective would spread and worsen the human race.In AmericaAs the idea of eugenics made their way into America exclusion acts were put into place. These acts made it easier for immigration officials to keep people with disabilities out of The United States, for starters, the law denied entry to anyone judges “mentally or physically defective… which may affect the ability of an alien to earn a living.” those considered “imbeciles” and “feeble-minded people” as well as anyone with any mental abnormalities, what so ever, were automatically excluded. In 1917 there was a long list of disabilities that, if an alien had would be denied access to The United States list included some of the following:Poor Eyesight Deformities Deafness Asthma Heart DiseaseArthritis Spine Curvature etc. Alexis Carrel, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, believed that there was “an error” in the U.S constitution “The feeble-minded and the man of genius should not be equal before the law. The stupid, the unintelligent, those who are dispersed, incapable of attention, of effort, have no right to a higher education.” as stated in his bestselling book Man, the Unknown. Implying why should a smart man be looked at by the law the same way as someone who is stupid, if he himself is not stupid? He wanted to find medical ways to extend the lives of the people he found to be superior, and those he didn’t would be condemned to death or forced sterilization as many eugenicists wanted or were already practicing. He also praised Hitler for the extreme measures he took to prevent those inferior to him from reproducing. He was not the only one to approve and encourage these ideas, a lot of Americans shared these views but many of his fellow colleagues did not so they no longer wanted to have a correlation with him. During this time many Americans felt as though they were not worthy of love or marriage. As they were told that, in reality, their lives were not worth much. American authorities were taking extreme measures to try and stop the spread of negative eugenics. Whether they had to perform a vasectomy against males will perform a tubal ligation on a woman without her consent, sending away a child with a learning disability to get “treated”, or allowing new-born defective babies to be killed. 45 percent of Americans in 1937 supported the killing of a newborn if found defective. Five years later the journal of APA (American Psychiatric Association) called for the killing of all “retarded” children over the age of five years old. After all this, American states put a lot of effort in sterilization laws. In fact, the Nazis followed the example that The United States of America put when they passed The Law for Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Disease. Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland soon followed in the, United States footsteps. What the United States was doing during this time was basically use as inspiration for the Nazis. When they were confronted by Allied authorities, over the killings, they used the excuse that the United States was doing the same thing and that the United States was doing it before they were. Although other western countries were doing the same thing, they were not slaughtering people, they were not committing genocide. What the killings were based on, though, of both parties, were actually very similar, they both wanted to better the human race by keeping it clean from the “negatives”. Hitler Hitler created the idea of the perfect human, the perfect eugenics, having white skin with blue eyes and blond hair… except Hitler did not come up with this idea the United States did. They had this idea about two decades before Hitler, he just took a liking to these ideas and put them in practice on a bigger scale, and blow them way out of proportion. According to Hitler, Jewish people had no ethics or morality and they had thought for 4,000 years that they are to chosen people and because Hitler thought this was genetics, he just tried to kill all of them, murdering about 6 million innocent Jewish lives. They again tried to defend themselves by quoting United States Supreme Court Justices, Oliver Wendell Holmes “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who manifestly unfit from continuing their kind…three generations of imbeciles are enough” this was their justification of committing genocide, all because of eugenics. Eugenics aftermath Eugenicists had a lot of information to prove their findings, the problem was most of their proof was poorly done. Their work was very over exaggerated as “facts”. They also did not have documents to support their studies, many times they had no genetic correlation between what they were trying to prove in their studies and because eugenicist know nothing about genetics they would make their own logic, for example, if a child comes from a well-off family the child will grow up to become well-off. They would use cultural IQ test to test immigrants, they were set up to fail right from the beginning. Most of the work they did only backtracked the study of genetics rather than improve anything in any way. Most traits eugenicists thought were hereditary traits were actually inherited traits but since they do not understand genetics or the methods of inheritance, they just kept making their own stuff up. Today most people do not want to be associated with this word because of the dark history and some people could even see it as a joke nowadays. Even though this word is not very common to hear that does not mean it has gone away. Nowadays it takes form in racist organizations and discrimination towards people of color whether that be blacks, Asians, or Latinos. The ideas about white skin with blue eyes and blond hair are still deep within these organizations, thinking they are better because they fit these criteria. Eugenics, in a way, is still alive and well.