Every day we are traveling to a new era of technological developments, one of which and at the same time the most exiting innovation is nanotechnology. Despite other benefits that come with this new area of science the most important is in terms of medical treatments. This essay will describe the impact of nanotechnology in improvement of medical treatment of diseases, and the risky side of it.Nanotechnology behaves very diverse regarding medical treatments, because it has a wide range of uses. Nanoparticles, which are particles of atomic level or even smaller, are the main instrument used to transport medicine or drugs into different parts of human body in a less harmful way. Some kinds of nanoparticles called the “gold-nanoparticles” have resulted effective in the treatment of cancer because of their ability to assimilate radiation. Once they enter inside the tumor cells they assimilate the energy and heat up until the cancer cell is killed. Another very important implementation of nanomedicine is in terms of surgery. Extremely small surgical instruments and even robots are used today to perform microsurgeries with high preciseness, because they have nanocameras within which allows the doctor to have a close up look of the whole process. Have you ever thought of a nanorobot instead of white cells?Well this visual dream has finally come to a real thing with nanorobots which are used as artificial white cells. They “hit and kill” a dangerous pathogen via a microscopic laser device mounted on it. Despite surgical treatments this technology offers the chance of regeneration in the case of tissues, cells and bone reparation with biocompatible materials such as smart polymer fibers with flexible abilities. These nano fibers also help increase heart muscle at laboratory conditions. The filaments ‘guide’ the muscles to grow properly, if previously they grew messy. The blind people finally have a chance to visualize their surrounding with Hybrid – neuro-electronic-retinal-cells, which provide artificial sight. Even though there are so many benefits from this new field of technology people still seem to be skeptical because of the potential risks they might have.Public awareness is an important part of the development of nanotechnology. Awareness helps to reduce the risks and fear of expanding the products and market of this industry. By studying and evaluating the risks of this new technology rapid flowering, reaction to any problem or accident will not destroy the research or perception of the future.