Assimilation (enculturation)
The process of aquiring a culture; a child’s acquisition of the cultural heritage through both formal and informal educational means
Bilingual Education
Educational programs in which students of limited or no English-speaking ability attend classes taught in English, as well as in their native language.

There is a great variability in these programs in termsof goals, instructional opportunity, and balance between English and a student’s native language.

Cultural Difference Theory
The theory asserts that academic problems can be overcome if educators study and mediate the gultural gap seperating school and home
Cultural Pluralism
Acceptance and encouragement of cultural diversity
Culturally Responsive Teaching
Recognizes that students learn in different ways, and that effective teachers respond to these differences. This approach focuses on the learning stregnths of students, as well as mediates the frequent mismatch between home and school cultures.
A set of learned beliefs, values, and behaviors; a way of life shared by members of a society
Deficit Theory
A theory that asserts that the values, language patterns, and behaviors that children from certain racial and ethnic groups bring to school put them at an educational disadvantage
Dual-language Instruction
Students develop cognitively in both languages, learning about the culture and history of their ethnic group as well as that of the dominant culture
English as a Second Language (ESL)
An immersion approach to biligual education that removes students from the regular classroom to provide instruction in English
English Lnguage Learners (ELL)
Students whose native language is not English and who are learning to speak and write English
Shared common cultural traits such as language, religion, and dress. A Latino or Hispnic, for example, belongs to an ethnic group, but might belong to he Negro, Caucasian, or Asian race.
Expetation Theory
First made popular by Rosenthal and Jacobson, this theory holds that a student’s academic performance can be improved if a teacher’s attitudes and beliefs about that student’s academic potential are modified.

The bilingual education model teaches students with limited English by using a “sheltered” or simplified English vocabulary, but teaching in English and not in the other language
Mainteance (developmental) Approach
A bilingual model that emphasizes the importance of acquiring English while maintaining competence in the native language
Multicultural Education
Educational policies and practices that not only recognize but also affirm human differences and similarities associated with gender, race, ethnitcity, nationality, disability, and class
A group of individuals sharing common genetic attributes, physical apperance, and ancestary
Transitional Approach
An approach to bilingual education program in which students are taught from a limited time in their own language as well as English. The goal is to move students into English-only-speaking classrooms.
Developmental Approach (maintanence)
A biligual model that emphasizes the importance of acuiring English while maintaining competence in the native language
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
Under the No Child Left Behind Act, each state establishes annual criteria to determine school district and school achievement. Schools that fail to meet the AYP criteria (often determined by standardized tests) are held accountable and may be closed
Authentic Assessment
A type of evaluation that represents actual performance, encourges students to reflect on their own work, and is integrated into the student’s whole learning process. Such tets usually require that students synthesize knowledge from different areas and use that knowledge actively.

The collection of literature and other works that typically reflects a white, Euro-centered view of the world
Content Standards
The knowledge, skills, and dispositions that students should master in each subject. These standards are often linked to broader themes and sometimes testing programs.
Core Curriculum
A central body of knowledge that schools require all students to study.
Core Knowledge (cultural literacy)
Awareness of the central ideas, beliefs, personalities, writings, events, etc.

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of a culture.

Digital Divide
The gap between technology haves and have-nots
The part of school life that comprises activities, such as sports, academic and social clubs, band, chorus, orchestra, and theater. Many educators think that the extracirriculum develops important skills and values, including leadership, teamwork, creativity, and diligence.
Formal or Explicit Curriculum
A school’s official curriculum that is reflected in academic courses and requirements
Implicit or Hidden Curriculum
What students learn, other that academic content, from what they do or are expected to do in school; incidental learnings
Last Mile Problem
Geography cntributes to a digital divide, in part because running fiber optic cables to rural schools is often an expense that telecommunications companies avoid
No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
A federal law passed in 2001 that emphasizes high-stakes standardized testing by requiring schools to annually assess students’ achievement in reading, math, and science.

Schools report not only individual test scores, but also scores by race, ethnicity, disability, social class, and limed English proficiency.

Opportunity-to-learn Standards
These standards attempt to recognize and respond t individual differences and circumstances. Poorer students learning in schools with fewer resources schould receive more appropriate and adequate learning opportunities, and if some students need more time to take tests, additional time should be provided.
Performance Standards
Statements that descrbe what teachers or students should be able to do, and how well they should do it.
Standards-based Education
Education that specifies precisely what students should learn, focuses the cirriculum and instruction (and perhaps much more) on meeting these standards, and provides continual testing to see if the standards are achieved.