Common Sense (1776) 1. Minoans Plane 2. Advocated independence and helped to gain public acceptance for that tactic among the patriot population 3. Pamphlet issued in 1776. Written with incredible clarity and force. Reprinted all over the colonies. Argument for independence. Tom Paine wrote these. Paine comes to North America and recognizes what is going on in the colonies. Ben Franklin encouraged him to write these. Paine believes if you follow the king you are acting like Catholic. Booster of the American revolution.
Challenges both established churches as well as established colonies. G. Population remains divided 1. 1/3 colonists stay loyal to Tories 2. 2/3 colonists are Whig, favoring rebellion II. Declaring independence A. Second Continental Congress (1775) 1 . Olive Branch Petition – sent from congress to George seeking his intervention to title the conflict and to approach his colonies peacefully but the king claimed the colonists brought it upon themselves. He rejects the peace and the colonists conceded that a “declaration of independence” was inevitable B.
Declaration 1 . Jefferson, Adams, and Franklin – main guys for the declaration 2. The first document of its kind in world history; many assemblies, colonies, and legislative bodies had out forth declarations concerning rights and privileges 3. Never before had a group of colonies listed its grievances, declared independence, and asserted its own sovereignty 4. The declaration appealed to the rest of mankind to recognize that the US was free and independent of the British empire C. Global context 1. Want and believe that the king will protect their rights. 2.
Thomas Jefferson: (Declaration of Independence: June 1776) Adams, and Franklin write the declaration. Jefferson is young, only 33 at the time, writes a brief on behalf of the colonists. Perception that the king has broken a contract to protect the colonists from parliament. 3. Idea of property/protection of property comes from John Locke. Also refers to lives, liberties and estates (things that people cannot take away from you). If property can be taken from you without your consent, you are, in effect, a slave. Not a revolution that comes out of later ideas.
Produced by the ideas from the previous century. People during the time believed that without slavery there can be no liberty. 4. Occurs in a global context. First time that in creating a country someone has issued a declaration, only as successful as others perceive it to be. For the revolution to work the declaration has to be effective. Creates a new model for how to build a nation’s Becomes ten model Tort now toner countries are going to est. II D sin tenet own declarations. Framework in which one enters their own grievances. 6.
Must overcome all obstacles (war, stolen property, death) in order to rise up. All have an inspiring cause: freedom 7. Strategy is holding off the British. Make the war last a long time so that the British begin to believe that it isn’t worth it to continue the revolution. 8. Victory for the British requires conquest. Also going to draw in Hessians. D. New Nations E. States Ill. Theaters of war A. Strengths and Weaknesses 1. Republicanism – patriots supported, emphasized liberty and guarded against any tyrannical exercise of governmental power I.
Meant more than Just a form of government since it implied how much citizens should relate to one another it. Revolutionaries believed that in order for a voluntary republic to flourish, its citizens must show civic virtue iii. Colonists know the land & have an inspiring cause keeping them together, sense of Justice ‘v. Strategy is to Just hold off the British, they know how hard the French Indian War was on British, Just trying to drain British until they give up v. British are professional soldier, have skills & resources v’. Victory for the British is about conquest, so they set out for port towns vii.
Hessians: German oldie’s commissioned by the British to fight for them, some end up staying in America The Assumptions of Republicanism Virtue (#1) It needs to be written It boils down to the idea of civic virtue Ancient government shows that republics have fallen when citizens fail to be virtuous Basically, it expects you to put aside your personal interest to help the public good Classical Republicanism Republican motherhood is a book that makes the argument that private domestic spheres used to be dominated by women It would be a woman’s responsibility to raise children and instill the civic virtues to her children (mostly to the males) The public sphere was dominated by males (politics, religion) Republican motherhood sort of blend these two sphere together Equality (#2) This is not the same equality that we think today It was for the higher class of the social hierarchy You are no longer at the to of the social ladder by birth, but instead by your work ethic It essentially means that’s we are all equal in relationship to the government The government can’t Just arrest you with nothing Sovereignty (#3) A Anton as one Separation of Powers (#4) It is a reflection of the fear of tyranny It is a way to separate overpowering like a king The separation of the government makes each too weak to have all the power B. Antis capture NY (1776) 1 .
Battles at Long Island and keep moving in with tremendous naval strength C. Washington loses Philadelphia (1777) 1 . Washington is the commander of all American forces 2. Oversees many losses in the beginning, but still very tactful 3. Washington retreated and prepared to enter winter quarters at Valley Forge D. Americans win at Saratoga, NY (1777) 1. Turning point in war 2. British fully surrender at this individual battle 3. Shows British vulnerability E. Valley Forge (1777) 1 . Crosses Delaware River to Valley Forge 2. Extremely cold winter, point at which all things could have fallen apart F. War at Sea 1. Most immediate impact of French assistance came in the navel war 2.
British Navy is strongest and best equipped sea force in the world – blockading the northern US coastline 3. Pertaining – government pays someone raid and capture ships 4. French entry into the war changed naval combat by diverting British attention away from the main fight in America and forcing them to commit naval warfare 5. French are a huge help in the Caribbean G. War in the South 1 . The South saw much of the worst fighting between patriots and loyalists of the entire war 2. Capture Savannah and Charleston 3. Bloody and nasty 4. Lose the war in the south 5. 1/3 colonists are loyal to Britain 6. Nathaniel Green I. Leader of the US forces in the South it.
Under his leadership, they push the British to Virginia 7. 1781 – Battle where Cornwallis has to surrender because they are being blocked by the French Ana H. Treaty of Paris (1783) 1 . Favorable to US, recognized American independence and established borders stretching 2. British granted American fishing rights off Nova Scotia, and Congress greed to honor all war debts, to restore confiscated loyalist property, and to disallow any retribution against British supporters 3. Concluded the first ever successful colonial war AT Independence Ana guaranteed Abroad A. Franklins pitch ten existence AT V Help Trot 1. Went to Paris to convince the French to aid in the war 2.
Convinced them that French Liberty was at stake B. Benjamin Franklin was told to get the French on our side 1. The French become the most important participant on the American side 2. They supplied upward of 90% of gunpowder used in the war 3. They are also the second strongest power in the world behind Britain 4. Benjamin Franklin is very educated and renown for his personality and was successful in getting the French on our side C. At the start the French are kind of secretly helping America D. After Saratoga the alliance became public E. Marquis De Lafayette 1 . Is a young democrat from France who comes to the Americas 2. Becomes a officer in the military 3.
Also becomes a participant in the French revolution 4. His return to the united states was one of the biggest events at the time of history 5. Highest ranking former officer in the American army 6. Fights war, survives war and returns to US which was one of the largest events in the US F. This war sort of served as a global model for revolution G. It is one that was democratic and was for the people fighting it, not the betterment of the government H. For many historians this is what defines the modern era The Age of Revolution I. What happens to hierarchy? A. Women 1 . Provide essential physical support for the revolution, provide food, supplies and can work as nurses; female writers 2.
Although women had contributed greatly during the war effort, they had little direct political influence and no political power n the new republic 3. Are claiming greater right because of participating in the revolution, recognition that women’s Job within the hemisphere is raising the next generation of virtuous men and women; republican motherhood seen as being tied to the house and they’re not able to function as full citizens with the rights they deserve B. Slaves 1 . The revolutionary notion that “all men are created equal” pushed antislavery efforts forward in many northern states 2. After the war, revolutionary ideology, black military heroism, continued petitions by African Americans helped to expand the antislavery cause 3.
Many northern states begin to end slavery at end of revolution, releasing slaves is a gradual process 4. Domestic institution: states are now in charge of slavery C. Indians 1 . Regard the Americans as the most dangerous of their enemies 2. Further West of ten Multiples ruler all Lana Is still immolated Dye Native Americans D. Class 1 . Poor men of north America want liberation from the British 2. Clear that elites are paying attention to land bounties: land given to veterans for their services 3. First major entitlement program 4. Virtuous men have to be selfless E. Purpose of government II. Articles of Confederation. A. Super-congress 1 . The Articles proposed a national government for the US 2.
The articles limited centralized power and reserved decision making in most other areas of the state 3. Congress had no power to tax citizens of the states, which contributed to severe national financial problems 4. Congress tried to coordinate national policy, but states exercised great power directly over their citizens 5. Effort to build “super congress” 6. Strong fear of authority so there is no executive 7. Devised during the war but not ratified until 4 years later in 1781 B. Confusion C. Challenges 1 . Congress lacked the power to tax, state governments assessed property taxes and duties on trade goods 2. Since the Articles required too little national tax power, poor people were feeling pressure by the heavy state taxation D.
The Fix “The general tendency of state politics convinced me that no safe and permanent remedy could be found but in a more efficient and better organized general government. ” – John Marshall Ill. The Age of Revolutions A. Haiti: 1791-1804 1. Island of San Domain, enormously wealthy sugar island in the Caribbean 2. Large population, Haiti is the first black republic, revolution against the French 3. It is an extremely wealthy sugar island, The French often had sex with heir slaves which allowed for many free blacks, Beginning in 1791 and ending in 1804, the blacks revolt against the slave owners and won making it the first black republic 4. A famous leader of this rebellion was Louvers 5.
The united states does into interfere with the revolution because we pretend it not their and that the rebellion never happened 6. To white southerners, it was a scare because it is what they future might hold B. France: 1789- 1799 1 . A group of Frenchman looking for freedom and prosperity 2. Becomes extremely violent, Uses the guillotine 3. Many people at first thought it was good at first because it seemed like a sort of European revolution ridding of the monarch 4. As it got more radical, American elites suppose e t art 01 less Ana less I nee two parties In American pool t I LLC Decode Federalist and the Democratic Republicans IV. Constitutional Convention (1787) A.
Background 1 . The creation of the constitution was a victory for those who wanted more centralized power, but the concept of federalism also insured that the states would remain powerful 2. New politics arose based on popular sovereignty, the notion that people could consent to granting power to both state and federal governments without giving up their rights as the true source of authority in American society B. Debt and Discontent 1 . The uncertain economic system in the US after the war caused hardship and unrest among a variety of poor farmers and a variety of veterans and artisans, who owed great debts or were owed money by the government 2.
People began to go to prison for debt and grow very angry, people did not have access to currency which was required to pay off debts 3. Groups began to protest and armed actions to close own country courts – Shays Rebellion – armed resistance movement C. The Convention 1 . A new constitution was proposed 2. No surprised they wanted go beyond Just amending the articles of confederation since the delegates of the convention consisted largely of the elite class of merchants, lawyers and plantation owners who had felt that the weakness of the national government and the popular unrest threatened social order 3. The convention elected George Washington as the presiding officer and agreed to meet in secret 4.
Clashing over how to balance regional and economic interests within that presentation, even though they agreed that they needed to restrain volatile popular democracy, they did not agree on the structures that would best do that D. Madison 1 . Virginia Plan – proposed a two house national legislature chosen according to proportional representation, a Judicial branch, and a resident elected by the legislature 2. Strongly advocated for balance of powers that would put authority in different branches of government Mimi must enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. ” – James Madison E. Small states-big states 1. Small states disliked his plan .
The Great Compromise – a house of representatives would be tied to proportional representation, and a senate would represent each state equally I. Creating this form of congress allowed the convention to balance the interests of small and large states 3. The electoral college was created to elect the president as a way to give power to the states and restrain popular democracy F. Slaves 1 3/5 AT slaves or “toner persons” would De counted In ten population Tort representation 2. The three-fifths compromise ensured that southern states, where the majority of slaves lived, would exercise strong political influence in the first cascades of the republic “the inhabitant of Georgia and S. C. Ho goes to the Coast of Africa, and in defiance of the most sacred laws of humanity tears away his fellow creatures from their dearest connections and damns them to the most cruel bandages, shall have more votes in a Gobo. Instituted for the protection of the rights of mankind, than the Citizen of Pa or N. Jersey who views with a laudable horror, so nefarious a practice. ” – Governor Morris G. Strong executive 1 . The Constitution supporters were the “Federalists” H. Ratification 1. To be ratified by specially elected conventions, not by state legislatures 2. The Constitution was set to go into effect when 9 out of 13 ratified it 3. Federalist Papers anonymously published by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay 4.
Madison Hamilton, and Jay applied Enlightenment political theories to the US context, and argued that the constitution was necessary Federalist Intermediaries Support the Constitution Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, John Marshall, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee, George Clinton, Mercy Otis Warren Objected the lack of rights protection in the Constitution; others favored weak national power or democracy V. New Government A. The Rise of Parties 1 . As first president, Washington wanted to remain neutral I. During his first term congress and the cabinet remained divided it. Congress – merchants, lawyers, dudes who were strong supporters of the new constitution 2. Bill of Rights I.
Focused primarily on guaranteeing individual liberties and restraining congress from inhibiting the press or establishing a state religion 3. Federalists I. Led by Hamilton favored strong use of federal power, greater taxation, and keeping direct political power in the hand of educated elites I’. They thought the US should restore good relations Walt Great Brutal Ill. Railcar AT ten interscholastic excess AT the French Revolution ‘v. Envisioned a version of American liberty that rested on traditional republican values and elite leadership 4. Democratic Republicans I. Led by Jefferson and James Madison I’. Favored the French and their democratic styles iii.
Jeffersonian argued that state governments should continue to check to power of the federal government ‘v. Rejected Hamiltonians plan to encourage commerce and US financial development v. Generally favored a more personal notion of democratic “liberty’ 5. Agreeing I. The agreed the assumption of state revolutionary war debts by the federal overspent B. Hamilton: 1790-91 1 . Argued that federal government had to pay outstanding debts of large states like New York and Pennsylvania to reassure foreign governments of the fiscal power of the US 2. Wanted to encourage economic development by wielding strong federal power that the Democratic republicans strongly opposed 3.
Proposed the creation of the national bank, supported by federal funds and private shareholders C. Jefferson 1. Believed farming to be the base of the ideal developing American economy, he insisted, in contrast to Hamilton, that democratic politics should include the articulation of online white men, especially farmers and artisans 2. He and other southerners opposed the assumption of state debts, not only because they wanted to restrict centralized power, but BC southern states had already paid back creditors 3. Sees the country prospering as yeoman D. Revolution of 1800 1 . Jefferson referred to election of 1800 as a revolution because of the shift in power from the federalists to the democratic republicans E. Jay’s Treaty (297) 1.
As Great Britain seized American ships trading with the French Caribbean islands, the Washington administration negotiated Jays Treaty with Britain, granting the US read rights on the Mississippi, in the British East Indies, and at western forts 2. Opposed by many claiming it was too pro-British F. Whiskey Rebellion (297) 1 . In July 1794, Pennsylvania protested the whiskey tax by attacking tax collector John Manville and burning his house 2. The Whiskey Rebellion prompted Washington to assert federal power using military force 3. Hamilton led 15,000 federalism militia troops from other states into Pennsylvania in September 4. The use of federal military power against domestic protesters outraged Democratic Republicans 5.
Washington partly blamed Democratic Republicans for the protests, saying that pro- Jefferson political clubs called Democratic Republican societies had encouraged protesters 6. The Whiskey Rebellion revealed deep disagreement over the proper exercise of federal power and the proper role of popular politics 7. In 1794 some wondered if the Whiskey Rebellion and its suppression might be the beginning of an American version of the French “Terror” G. Alien and Sedition Acts (301) 1. Passed in 1798, the alien and Sedition Acts restricted immigration, gave the president the power to deport anyone thought to be dangerous, and imposed fines an prison tale on tense conspiring to oppose governmental measures, Including speaking against the government or president H. Toasting Louvers (303) 1 .
A charismatic former slave who led the rebels in switching to the French revolutionary cause in 1794, after the French government abolished slavery 2. Became governor general of Saint Dominique and bested Spanish and English forces and took over the entire island of Hispanic for the French 3. He also pacified the large mixed-race population on the island 4. By the end of the decade he ruled Saint Dominique, and many white politicians in the US were unsettled by the specter of a roomers enslaved black rebel in charge off major French colony near US shores l. Gabriel (303) 1 . A Virginia slave who, emboldened by the Saint Dominique revolt and the political divisions he witnessed inside his state, planned a large-scale revolt to coincide with the 1800 presidential election 2.
He believed that free blacks and artisans would Join his cause, and he planned to carry a banner reading “death or Liberty,” a play on Patrick Henrys phrase from the American Revolution, when he marched on the capital at Richmond 3. Instead, he and his compatriots were betrayed, and he was ride and executed in October 1800 4. Virginia legislators imposed harsher slave codes in the aftermath of the rebellion in an effort to crack down on any rebellious slaves who might be inspired by Saint Dominique J. Mammary v. Madison (305) 1 . Brought by the Jefferson administration against one of Dam’s last minute appointees to the federal bench, Mammary v. Madison, in Chief Justice John Marshal’s opinion, established the principle of Judicial review Expanding America l. Louisiana Purchase A. Clearing the way… 1 .
Jefferson supported the limitation of federal government power, as president he exercised great authority in expanding the territory 2. He wanted to give farmers wide open land as part of his them holding the key to the country future plan and he wanted to prevent Napoleon from pursuing imperial dreams of his own B. French in tight spot 1 . French was occupied with affairs going on in the eastern hemisphere so they were all to eager to sell Louisiana to the Americans for $15 million C. Doubles U. S. 1. The purchase doubled the size of the US D. Hamiltonian in practice II. Lewis and Clark A. Mapping and conquest 1 . Jefferson sent them on the expedition to explore beyond the Missouri River to stake