information provided to students about their performance.Most effective when it is specific, immediate, positive, frequent, and different–Two categoriesoPositive feedback- praise and/or other forms of confirmation for correct responsesoError correction for incorrect responses
Definition of Maintenance
extent to which a learner continues to exhibit a previously learned behavior after a portion or all of the instruction intervention originally used to teach the skill has been terminated
Defintion of task analysis:
breaking a complex skill or chain of behaviors into smaller, teachable units.
Defintion of decibels
unit of measure for the relative intensity of sound on a logarithmic scale beginning at zero.Zero decibels refers to the faintest sound a person with normal hearing can detect.
Definition of Audiologist
a professional who specializes in the evaluation of hearing ability and te treatment of impaired hearing.
Definition of Fingerspelling
the manual alphabet used to spell out proper names for which no sign exist and to clarify meanings; an integral part of American Sign Language (ASL).
Definition of Braille
a system of writing letters, numbers, and other language symbols with a combination of six raised dots.A person who is blind reads the dots with his fingertips
Definition of mobility
the ability to move safely and efficiently from on point to another
Definition of orientation
the ability to establish one’s position in relation to the environment
Deginition of prosthesis
a devise used to replace a missing or impaired body part
Definition of functional analysis
experimental manipulation of antecedent or consequential events representing those observed in the child’s natural environment to verify their function in either triggering or maintaining problem behaviors
Definition of respite care
the temporary care of an individual with disabilities by nonfaimily members, provides much-needed support for many families of children with severe disabilities
Definition of generalization
extent to which previously learned knowledge or skill either occurs under conditions different from those under which it was originally learned or is performed in a different but functionally equivalent manner.
Definition of Reinforcement
presentation of a stimulus or event immediately after a response has been emitted, which has the primary effect of increasing the occurrence of similar responses in the future
1. Attention deficit disorders: prevalence? How similar/dissimilar with LD, MR.
Chapter 11 pp. 420-422)
prevelance?Most frequently cited estimate: 3-5% of all school age children·Most typical classrooms will have 1 to 2 children either diagnosed with ADHD or showing problems associated with ADHD·Students with ADHD eligible for IDEA under OHISimilarities with LD/MR·Score lower on IQ tests and achievement tests·Often require tutoring for basic skills·About 30% repeat one or more grades·20% of students receiving IDEA under LD/MR have ADHD·Majority of students with ADHD are served under ED ad LD· Associated with genetic disorders/diseases (i.e. fragile X, Turner, Williams and Fetal Alcohol Syndromes)·Students with LD often experience ADHD difficultiesDissimilarities with LD/MR· Not an IDEA category·Core impairment in ADHD is faulty inhibition or self-control·ADHD is an inconsistent pattern of inattention/hyperactivity instead of low performance in school ( or IQ) being the issue.
2. Fundamental characteristic of students with learning disabilities? Chapter 5 (pp. 179-186)
·Disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes used in understanding or language·May manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, write, read, speak, spell or do math·Unexpected difference in IQ and achievement!! (specific and significant achievement deficits in the presence of adequate intelligence)·Reading problems (90% of all children identified)·Deficits in written language·Underachievement in math (50 %)·Poor social skills (75% have this problem)·Attention Deficit and hyperactivity·Behavior problems·Low self-esteem
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·Cause is unknown in most casesBrain Damage·In most cases, there is no evidence of brain damage therefore brain damage is not a cause (termed minimal brain dysfunction by doctors meaning child’s brain does not function properly)·Don’t use this as a reason because it makes teachers lazier because they think the students lack of learning is a brain problem, not their problemHeredity·Siblings and kids of people with reading disabilities have a slightly greater risk of having reading problems·Some genetic links with dyslexia·Possible chromosomal loci for transmission of phonological deficitsBiochemical Imbalance·No evidence for thisEnvironmental Factors·Impoverished living conditions and poor instruction early in life may contribute to achievement deficits·Many problems can be remediated by direct, intensive instruction
4.-5 Different recommended strategies across different age levels?Examples: Corrective, preventative, learning strategies, compensatory, remedial.pg 35
**this is what i was able to find that fit this question,I didn’t see corrective and learning strategies **–Preventive intervention:Special educators design preventive intervention to keep a potential or minor problem from becoming a disability. Preventive interventions include actions that stop an event from happening and those that reduce the negative outcomes or a disability or condition that has already been identified–Remedial Intervention: attempts to eliminate specific effects of a disability. Used to teach the person with disabilities skills for independent and successful functioning.In school, those skills may be academic,social,self-care,or vocational.–Compensatory intervention:involves teaching a substitute skill that enables a person to perform a task in spite of a disability.
ex: a child with cerebral palsy learns to use her hands in the same way that others do for some tasks
6. ;Students with physical disabilities are sometimes gifted intellectually; why are their cognitive abilities often overlooked?pg 427
-In addition to the neurological motor and orthopedic impairments that hamper their academic performance,the daily health care routines and medications that some children must endure have negative side effects on academic achievement. -Educational progress is also hampered by frequent and sometimes prolonged absences from school for medical treatments-As a group, students with physical disabilities and health impairments perform below average on measures of social behavioral skills. ;
*Biomedical causes/Biological Causes(organic)-Prenatal causes(occurring before birth)=Down syndrome, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders,Fragile X syndrome,Klinefelter syndrome, Phenyiketonuria,Prader-Willi Syndrome,Williams syndrome–Perinatal(occurring during or shortly after birth) =include Intrauterine disorders,Neonatal disorders–Postnatal (occurring after birth)=include head injuries,infections,degenerative disorders–Most common Down syndrome and fragile x syndrome-These conditions,diseases, and syndromes are commonly associated with IDD;but they may or may not result in deficits of intellectual or adaptive functioning that define IDD.The # 1 cause worldwide is Malnutrition;*Environmental Causes (nonorganic)-When no biological factor is evident in an individual with IDD, the cause is presumed to be a psychosocial disadvantage, the combination of a poor social environment in a child’s life-Minimal opportunities to develop early language-parents do not interact with them-child abuse and neglect-chronic social or sensory deprivationMinimal brain dysfunctionpg 188-When evidence of brain damage is not found (majority of children with learning disabilities) this term is used, especially by physicians-This wording implies brain damage by asserting that the child’s brain does not function properly
Within Schools, ;exceptional; students include whom?
exceptional children: ;The physical attributes and/or learning abilities of children who differ from the norm to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special education and related services to fully benefit from their education; (p. 9).Inclusive terms refers to children with ( p.
–;;;;;;;;; Leaning and/or behavior problems–;;;;;;;;; Physical disabilities–;;;;;;;;; Sensory impairments–;;;;;;;;; Intellectually gifted or have special talents
9. What does ;least restrictive environment; REALLY mean?
LRE is the setting that is closest to a regular school program that meets the child;s special educational needs (Keyes PowerPoint for LRE lecture 1)–;;;;;;;;; A relative and wholly individualized concept; it is not to be determined by disability category (p.74)–;;;;;;;;; LRE may change over time (p.
?10. ;Research;on the effects of labeling – what does it say?
Although the pros and cons of using disability category labels have been widely debated for several decades (Hobbs, 1975, 1976a, 1976b), neither conceptual arguments nor research has produced a conclusive case, for the total acceptance or absolute rejection of labeling practices.; Most of the studies conducted to assess the effects of labeling have produced inconclusive, often contradictory evidence and have generally been marked by methodological weakness. (p. 14)
;PL;94-142 (in general), and why was it REALLY that important? (now IDEA)
;PL 94-142 in 1975 Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. This has been amended 5 times. The law reflects society;s concern about treating people with disabilities as full citizens with the same right and privileges that all other citizens enjoy. (text pg 18);It is REALLY important because of the federal funding. When congress passed IDEA, it promised to provide 40% of the ;excess cost; of educating children with disabilities, based on the national average for per-student expenditures. Although federal funding has increased in recent years, it has never reached more than about 18% of the national average. (text pg 23)
12. ;Federal;law requirements regarding states and special education?
According to IDEA (PL 94-142) all schools must educate all students with disabilities; must use nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation to determine whether a child has a disability, and if so, whether the child needs a special education; must provide all children, regardless of the type of severity of their disability, shall receive a free appropriate public education, according to public expense; an IEP must be developed and implemented; LRE; schools must provide due process safeguards to protect the rights of the children with disabilities and their parents; and schools must collaborate with parents and students with disabilities in the planning and implementation of special education and related services.
13. ;What;are related services, direct service and indirect services under IDEA?
Related Services- Developmental, corrective, and other supportive services required for a child with disabilities to benefit from special education. Includes special transportation services, speech and language pathology, auditory, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, school health services, counseling and medical services for diagnostic and evaluation purposes, rehabilitation counseling, social work services, and parent counseling and training. (text G-12);Direct Services- Direct instruction and services are provided directly to a child by a special education teacher or related services professional. Direct service can be provided to an individual child or to a small group of children with similar needs.
Direct instruction and services are provided to help a child meet the goals and objectives on the child;s IEP. For example, to address a goal for written language, a special education teacher could provide direct service in written language instruction.
;Indirect Services- ;are not provided directly to a child. Instead, a special education teacher or related service professional provides these services to others who are working directly with a child. Indirect services could include activities such as staff consultation with a regular education teacher on situations resulting from a child;s disability, modifying curriculum or environment for a child, observing a child, monitoring a child;s progress in a specific area, or monitoring equipment or assistive technology used by a child.;( I couldn;t find direct and indirect in the text but this source worked ;;http://www.
14. Know results of prereferral intervention. PAGE 50
– Prereferral intervention is the process before referring the child for formal testing and evaluation for special education. The result is to implement interventions for students who experience academic and/or behavioral difficulties in general education classes. The steps for prereferral intervention are: (1) Teacher or parent reports concern with child’s learning, behavior, or development, or results of a screening test indicate a possible disability, (2) parents are notified, (3) Intervention assistance team** works with general education teacher to plan and help implement modifications in curriculum and instruction in an attempt to solve the problem, (4) Some schools use RTI (response to intervention) to identify children for referral for special education.
*Prereferral intervention is not required by IDEA and may NOT be used to delay referral and evaluation of eligible students for special education. If the intervention is successful the process stops, if it is not successful the child is referred to formal evaluation. **The team consists of principal, administrator, nurse, guidance counselor, general education teacher, and special education teacher.
15. Implications of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities. PAGE 107-109 (CHAPTER 3)
– Many families are English Language Learners, many families live in low-income and poverty, partitioners should understand that although the parents may not have finished school or cannot read, they are “life-educated” and know their child better than anyone else does, if families are undocumented immigrants, they are naturally fearful of interaction with anyone representing authority, families from culturally diverse backgrounds tend to be family-oriented, culturally diverse families may have different experiences with and views about disability and some may hold idiosyncratic ideologies and practices about the cause and treatment of disability, and the special education system may be intimidating to the family. *This question was a little confusing to me, I am going to get with Dr.
Keyes about what he’s actually looking for in this question early next week before class and I will update this answer if needed.*
16. Know reasons for measuring adaptive behavior (i.
e., MR) PAGE 138, 141
– Adaptive behavior is the collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. Children with MR have deficits in adaptive behavior. Limitations in self-care skills and social relationships as well as behavioral excesses are common.
It is important to measure these behaviors beyond the diagnosis of MR. The adaptive skills exhibited by a person with ID (MR) are critical factors in determining the supports a student requires for success in school, work, community and home environments.;
17. ;What factors define ; must be present to classify mental retardation?
Definitions: ;IDEA-significantly subaverage general intelectual functioning existing concurrently w/deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
AAIDD-disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills…originates before age 18.
AAIDD’s Committee on Terminology ; Classification-5 assumptions in classification1. ;limitations in present functioning must be considered w/in context of community environments typical of the individual’s age peers and culture2. valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor, and behavioral factors3.
within the individual, limitations often coexist with strengths
4. purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports5. with appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with the intellectual disability generally will improve(p. 133)IQ Score ClassificationIntermittent (mild): 50-55 to approximately 70Limited (moderate): 35-40 to 50-55Extensive (severe): 20-25 to 35-40Pervasive (profound): below 20-25(p. 132)
Advantages/disadvantages of the resource room?
Advantages1. students do not lose their identity with their general education class peer group2. students can receive the intensive, individualized instruction they need3. flexible scheduling allows the resource room to serve a fairly large number of studentsDisadvantages1. require students to spend time traveling between classrooms2.
may result in inconsistent instructional approaches between settings
3. make it difficult to determine whether students should be accountable for what they missed while out of the general education classroom(p. 205)
19. Identification of emotional and behavioral disorders is largely determined what?
20. Patterns of early antisocial behavior early – what are implications?
A pattern of antisocial behavior early in a child’s development is the best single predictor of delinquency in adolescence.(p. 216);
21. Populations with most frequent communication disorders:p.
?-2.5% of school-age population?-~50% of students receiving SpEd because of primary disability (IDD, LD, hearing impairments) have communication disorders as well?-Main problem associated with autism?-Much more prevalent in boys than girls (2/3)?-Percentage of students with speech and language disorders decreases from earlier to later grades?-It does not matter which geographical region!!!!?
22. Characteristics of students with hearing impairments: p. 336-338, class lecture;;;;;;
-THREE QUALIFICATIONS?1.; Extremely heterogeneous group?2.; Effects of hearing loss on child;s communication and language skills, academic achievement, and social and emotional functioning are influenced by many factors (type and degree of hearing loss, age at onset, attitudes of child;s parents and siblings, opportunity to acquire a first language, and presence/absence of other disabilities.?3.; GENERALIZATIONS about how deaf people are supposed to act and feel must be viewed with extreme caution!-Deaf children at great disadvantage in acquiring English literacy skills- reading/writing, smaller vocabulary?-Speech may be difficult to understand (omission of sounds, speech is too loud or too soft , abnormally high pitch, poor inflection, and/or speak at improper rate/speed)?-Students with hearing impairments lag behind those who can hear ;in academic achievement.
; This gap widens as they get older?-Children with severe/profound hearing loss report feeling isolated, unhappy in school- particularly when socialization with other children with hearing loss is limited?-Many deaf people choose membership in Deaf community/culture
23. Stereotypic behaviors of hearing loss;:
Okay;. I couldn;t find this in the book and tried to do some online research.; I am going to ask Dr. Keyes on Wednesday.
; Any input would be helpful!
I believe that many of these stereotypic behaviors are similar to those observed in children with autism- focusing on only one toy for example, not seeming alert, unresponsive to caregivers;;
24. ;Implications of students who are blind and students with low vision.;;;; Chapter 10 pp. 373-375;
Due to the critical nature of vision in everyday life, there are a broad range of implications for students with blindness or low vision.; ;;Parents can expect their child to have delays or deficits in motor development and mobility.; The child may be hesitant to move around because of painful incidences in the past.; The inability to play and interact as non-disabled children do can also result in poor development in social skills.; A lack of motor development also limits a child;s ability to learn through contact with objects and the environment.
; Depending on the severity of the disability, a student can expect to have little to severe problems with mobility throughout life.; In cases of high difficulty, individuals with blindness may forsake the effort required for social interactions and become withdrawn.; Academic implications are also present for a student with blindness or low vision. ;Students with blindness often have difficulty understanding language concepts.; Because they cannot see how objects in the world relate to one another, their knowledge is often compartmentalized.
; (Example from book: a student may have the knowledge of what a cat is, as well as what a tail is, but the concept that cats have tails is difficult without being able to see the relationship between a cat and its tail.); Students with blindness may also engage in stereotypic behavior (hand flapping, rocking, etc.) which could further interfere with academics and social acceptance.
I;m going to try to narrow this answer down, but like Jackie, I have no idea where he want us to go with ;implications,; so the answer is pretty broad right now.; I;ll change it and resend it if I find out.;
;Visual impairment has what incidence?;;; Chapter 10 p. 376
;;;; 2 in every 1,000 children have a visual impairment;;;;; .04% or 1 in every 200-250 of students with IEPs are served under the visual impairment category.
26. ;Ritualistic and self-stimulatory behavior – what are they related to?;;; Chapter 7 p.
Also know as stereotypy, these behaviors are related to Autism Spectrum Disorder.; These actions generally involved spinning, hand flapping, rocking, finger movement, rubbing objects against skin, etc, which provide higher levels of physical stimulation, and often serve as a calming and/or coping mechanism.
27. Federal legislation regarding education of the gifted and talented- how does it keep some kids out?
IQ tests are used which skew results in favor of white middle class children. Therefore minorities are often underrepresented in gifted and talented programs (Mr. Keyes lecture)
28. Most states limit their definition of giftedness to 3 areas- name them.
1. Above average general intellectual abilities ;2. high level of task commitment ;3. creativity (pg. 494 and 495)
29. Outcomes of acceleration?
Acceleration is the solution to curriculum problems of gifted children. Individual students can receive an education at their intellectual level, rather than their age level. (pg.
507 and 508)
30. The most critical feature in identifying gifted and talented students is…?
;There are many different types of definitions (page 493-496) for the Gifted and Talented students however in terms of identifying them I looked at pages 501-506.
;;A multifactored assessment approach that uses information from a variety of sources is considered to be more accurate and equitable in identification of the gifted and talented. This approach incorporates data from a variety of sources. (Group and individual intelligence tests, achievement tests, portfolios of student work, teacher nomination based on reports of student behavior in the classroom, parent nomination, self-nomination, peer nomination, and extracurricular or leisure activities).;;It then goes into more explanation like on Dr. Keyes powerpoint about how it differs across cultures, gender, etc.
but I believe what he is getting at as the most critical features is that it is a multi-factored approach and does not identify solely on a high IQ score to identify GT.
;The federal definition of Gifted and Talented includes:;;;;;;;; -Exhibits high performance capability;;;;;;;; -Demonstrates outstanding intellectual, creative, leadership, and/or artistic achievement.;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; -Excels in a specific academic field
31. What is DSM IV?;Pages (258-261, and mentions it again on 273, 421)
;It stands for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). It is published by the American Psychiatric Association.
It specifically gives criteria (may say;six or more and at least two from section 1 or 2, etc) for diagnosing any disorder (such as Autism, Bi-polar, Schizophrenia, etc).
;There is an example on page 259 of the criteria in which to diagnose a child with Autism disorder.
32. Know basics of the challenges in the education of gifted and talented students;(Pages 507-521).
This is a long section about the curriculum and differentiation of curriculum.
;The basics I think are that a GT student needs the curriculum to not only be accelerated but they need it to be modified to provide enrichment. We talked about these two different types in class. I think the challenges for GT based on the education is having the curriculum not only modified but also having a teacher who is capable of doing this, has time to provide the environment for these students as well as the money. We had a long discussion in class about the schools cutting their programs and how the students are at their highest dropout rate from not being challenged enough.
;As far as the section goes it gets into what acceleration and enrichment means to then how you can structure lessons to provide these two. As far as what I think Dr. Keyes is looking for is that money, and not being challenged enough to promote the critical thinking that they need is their biggest challenge.