Children who need Exceptional Education

Children included in exceptional education include those who differ from the norm in such an extent that they require individualized program.

The loss of reduced function of a particular body part or organ.
When the impairment limits a person’s ability to perform certain tasks

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Problem or disadvantage that a person with disability or impairment encounters when interacting with the environment.


– Imposed upon by society or self

AT Risk

Refers to children who are not currently classified as having a disability but have a high probability that a disability may exist.

Dignity of Risk

teaching people to take a risk or chance.  Setting the environment with the opportunity to succeed or fail.


Least Restrive Enviornment



LRE is the setting that is closest to a regular school program that meets the child’s special educational needs



– The IEP team must determine if the annual goals and short-term objectives can be achieved in the regular classroom.



Educating students with disabilities in regular classrooms



– A few special educators believe that the LRE principle should give way to full inclusion, in which all students with disabilities are placed full time in regular classrooms.

Getting students up to a standard and putting them in the general education classroom.
When to remove a student from a classroom

Remove only when the severity of the disability is such that an appropriate education cannot be achieved.



– Placement must not be regarded as permanent

What is Labeling


Positives and Negatives

 Labeling: Federal law requires labeling for students to be eligible for special education.  Under the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), to receive special education and related services, a child must be indentified as having a disability (i.e. labeled).  This is ages 3-9

Positives: funding, you know what to address, teachers can research the child to better help them, better education

Negatives: stereotypes, stigma, low expectations of the child from the teachers,

Protections and Advocacy- these are agencies, proponents

Responsiveness To Intervention

Responsiveness to intervention (RTI): happens before 3rd grade. The idea is to provide early intervention in the form of scientifically validated instruction to all children in the school whose performance suggests they are at risk of Failure in school.

IDEA requires all children suspected of having a disability must receive a nondiscriminatorymultifactoredevaluation (MFE):

Hurried Child Syndrome



rushing kids to learn (e.g. teach you baby to read)

Program Planning
an individualizes education program must be developled for children identified as having a disability
Review and Evaluation
The IEP must be thoroughly and formally reviewed on an annual basis.

Individualized Education Program


IDEA requires that an IEP be developed and implemented for every student with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 94-142

IEP Team must include the following

– Parents

– Regular Education Teacher

– Special Education Teacher

– Individual who can interpret evaluation results

– Others at the discretion of the parent or schoole

– The student (age 14 or older must be invited)

Individualized Family Service Plans



Individualized family service plans are developed for infants and toddlers from birth to age 2.


– written by a multidisciplinary team that includes the parents

IEP Components

1.A statement of present levels of educational performance

2.A statement of annual goals

3.A statement of special education and related services

4.An explanation of the extent to which the student will not participate with nondisabled children

5.Individual modifications

6.The projected date for the beginning and duration of services

7.A statement of how the child will be assessed

8.Beginning at age 16, an individual transition plan must be developed

IEP Functions and Formats


– IEP formats vary widely across school districts


– Properly including all of the mandated components in an IEP is no guarantee that the document will guide the students learning and the teachers’ teaching


The purpose is to create a document that goes beyond compliance with the law and actually functions as a meningful guide

Brown v. Board of Education


 Brown v. Board of education: The case established the right of all children to an equal opportunity for an education. Equal education must be made available to all children on equal terms. 


–  Separate but equal is not constitutional

this case was fighting for equal rights for blacks and whites

Birth of Special Education. This same principle was to be applied to students with disabilities.

Parents based their argument on the 14th Amendment, which provides that no state shall deny any person within its jurisdiction life, liberty, or property without process of law.
First Case was to fight 14th amendment was up in Colleton County by Santee
Brown v. Board overturned Pleasy v Furgeson
-Supreme court justice Warren after a trip, came back early and convinced everyone to vote to change the 14th amendment



 PARC vs. Penn: PARC challenged a state law that denied public school education to certain children considered “unable to profit from public school attendance.”

– 13th Amendment Equal protection

– Mandatory education Law was the law used was used to amend the constitution.

Mills vs. The Board of Education of The District of Columbia



Mills vs. Board of Education: School claimed it didn’t have enough money to provide education to children with  learning and behavioral problem.  Court ruled that financial problems cannot have a greater impact on children with disabilities.  Kids put back in school.

Cant put people in special education without Due process

* PARC and Mills case were benchmark in creating 94-142

Section 504

Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Beginning mandates working toward equal education

Addresses discriminatory practices in housing, health care, education programs, and in employment (Middleton et al., 1999). 

Covers children who have a physical or mental impairment that limits a major life activity or are regarded as having such a disability

Discretely addresses the failure of public schools to educate students with disabilities (Richards, 2000).


Mandates that public schools provide free and appropriate educational (FAPE) services to all students who have disabilities

Free and Appropriate Public Education


All children with disabilities, regardless of the type or severity of their disability, shall receive a free appropriate public education.
Six Principles of Special Education Law


nFree appropriate public education (FAPE)
nAppropriate, nondiscriminatory, and multidisciplinary evaluation
nIndividualized Education Plan (IEP)
nLeast Restrictive Environment (LRE)
nParent and Student Participation in decision making
nProcedural Safeguards

School Criticisms of IDEA


Excessive procedures and paperwork
IDEA protects Children and parents but not districts, schools and teachers
Reduces schools ability to educate regular education students
Unfunded mandate
-developed without much input from the field

Student Parent Criticisms of IDEA


Parents say schools do not follow IEPs
Hearing Officers are not impartial
Services are less expensive then the fight to provide them
Schools and Districts may retaliate
Children Labeled because schools have not taught them
Minorities are over identified
Transition services are not adequate

Taxpayer Criticisms of IDEA


No child is so severely disabled that they do not qualify for IDEA
Related Services can be medical treatments and there is no requirement that private health insurance be used
-As a society, do we give to much to those who cannot offer much in return, and not enough to those with the most potential

America with Disabilities Act




nEnacted in 1990 as a broad civil rights statue that extends protections to private industry, public entities, public accommodations, telecommunications and private nonsectarian schools (CASE, 1999; Rea & Davis-Dorsey, 2004).
nEnforced and regulated under the Department of Justice (United States Department of Justice, 2004).  
nADA covers any individual with a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more major life activity or is regarded as having such impairment (CASE, 1999).

No Child Left Behind



nParadigm shift from IDEA 97’s emphasis on assistance to Accountability (Yell & Katsiyannis, 2004)
nNCLB (2001) was created in reaction to low academic achievement, is a sweeping legislative act that will exert profound influence on education, recognizes and embraces science and the use of empirically based practices, will ultimately affect the way universities prepare future teachers and the way teachers teach their students.

nAccountability as

measured by adequate yearly progress (AYP)

¨Specifically in math and reading (2013-2014)

¨Within safe schools

¨Use of highly qualified teachers (2005-2006)


Use of scientifically based instruction

Cultural Competence


nAn ability to function within the context of integrated patterns of behavior defined by a group.
nTeachers’ own experiences and curiosities of how they perceive students from various cultural backgrounds have a profound influence on students’ attitudes andbehavior.