Autism Spectrum Disorder
developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
Impaired Social Interaction
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Applied Behavioral Analysis
a scientific approach to designing, conducting and evaluating instruction based on empirically verified principles describing functional relationships between events in the environment and behavior change
Communication
an interactive exchange of information, feelings
Language
formalized code used by a group of people to communicate with one another
Speech
oral production of language
Language Disorder
a reduced ability, whether developmental or acquired, to comprehend or express ideas through spoken, written or gestural language
Receptive Language
understanding of language
Expressive Language
expression of language
Articulation Disorder
include all non-maturational speech deviations based on incorrect production of speech sounds; omissions, substitutions, additions or distortions of phonemes within words
Fluency Disorder
an interruption in flow of speaking characterized by atypical rate, rhythm and repetitions in sounds, syllables, words and phrases
Voice Disorder
characterized by abnormal production or absence of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, duration which is inappropriate for individual’s age or gender
Orthopedic Impairment
a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
Other Health Impaired
having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, because of a chronic or acute health problem (asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, diabetes)
Cerebral Palsy
a disorder of voluntary movement and posture
Spina Bifida
a condition in which the vertebrae do not enclose the spinal cord
Muscular Dystrophy
diseases related to the wasting away of the body’s muscles
Spinal Cord Injury
usually the result of a lesion to the spinal cord cause by a penetrating injury, stretching of the vertebral column, fracture of the vertebrae or compression of the spinal cord
Cystic Fibrosis
a genetic disease in which the body’s exocrine glands excrete thick mucus that block the lungs
Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)
partial seizures, generalized seizures
Monoplegia
only one limb affected
Hemiplegia
one side of the body is affected
Paraplegia
only legs are affected
Tetraplegia
involves all limbs and trunk of the body
Diplegia
both legs or both arms are affected
Assistive Technology
both low-tech (adapted eating utensils, a reacher) and high-tech (computerized synthetic speech devices) assistive devices to ease daily life
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (medical definition)
psychiatric disorder, negatively affects social, emotional or academic functioning, considered neurobiological
Impaired Social Interaction
difficulty interpreting and understanding the emotions of others
Communication and Language Deficits
difficulty expressing and explaining themselves in a verbal way
Repetitive, Ritualistic and Unusual Behavior Patterns
likes routines and patterns, often has odd quirks such as rocking themselves
Intellectual Functioning
most fall under category of intellectual disability, 10% have savant syndrome
Problem Behavior
some children with ASD exhibit problem behaviors at school
Importance of Early Diagnosis of ASD
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Signs That Warrant Concern About ASD in First 18 Months of Life
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Effective Educational Approaches for ASD
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Functions of Communication
Narrating, explaining, requesting, and expressing
5 Dimensions of Language
Phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics
Phonology
the linguistic rules governing a language sound system; how sounds are sequenced and combined
Morphology
the basic units of meaning and how those units are combined into words
Syntax
the system of rules governing the meaningful arrangement of words, specific to each language and identify acceptable grammatical relationships so that the correct meaning is conveyed
Semantics
related to the meanings of words and combination of words, includes vocabulary, concepts, contextual meaning, categories and relationships among words
Pragmatics
rules that govern social use of language; vary across and within cultures
When is Speech Considered Impaired?
When it deviates so far from the speech of other people that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication and/or provokes distress in the speaker or listener
4 Kinds of Speech-Sound Errors
distortions, omissions, addition, substitutions
Omissions
cool for school, pos for post
Distortions
/s/ schleep or zleep for sleep
Addition
hamber for hammer
Substitutions
doze for those
Types and Definitions of Fluency Disorders
Stuttering and cluttering
Stuttering
rapid repetition of consonant or vowel sounds, most often at the beginnings of words, prolongations, hesitations, interjections and verbal block
Cluttering
excessive speech rate, repetitions, extra sounds, mispronounced words or no pauses—speaker may be unaware
Causes of Speech Disorders (impairments)
Physical factors such as cleft lip, paralysis of the speech muscles, absence of teeth, craniofacial abnormalities, enlarged adenoids and traumatic brain injury, dysarthria- a group of speech disorders caused by neuromuscular impairments in respiration, phonation, resonation and articulation
Causes of Language Disorders
Include developmental and intellectual disabilities, autism, TBI, child abuse and neglect, hearing loss, structural abnormalities of the speech mechanism
Treatment Approaches for Language Disorders
vocabulary building and naturalistic strategies
Vocabulary Building
graphic organizers, mnemonics
Naturalistic Strategies
teach when a child is interested, teach what is functional for the moment in time, stop while teacher and student are enjoying the activity
Chronic
exists all the time
Acute
serious but there is treatment, possibly cure
Progressive
gets worse over time, may lead to death
Episodic
occurs with intensity but at times are dormant
Congenital
present at birth (genetic or environmental)
Acquired
occurs during or shortly after birth (accident, illness, environmental)
Characteristics of Students With Physical and Health Impairments
cognitive and academic vary widely
Characteristics of Students With Physical and Health
Behavior, Emotional and Social: Behavior problems may be present, positive behavior supports and FBA needed, students may have poor self-esteem, anger at situation, may need help relating to peers or access to peers
Characteristics of Students With Physical and Health
Physical and Medical: Teachers must learn about each student’s conditions, risks and needs
Environmental supports
organized, uncluttered classroom, keep decorations out of direct line of sight, post clear classroom rules, post and follow routines, mix difficult and tedious work with more stimulating work
Characteristics of a Student With ADHD/ADD
3 areas
Cognitive
Problems with executive functioning, working memory is not efficient, self-directed speech not utilized effectively, difficulty controlling emotions or motivations, problems with planning
Academic
Some are very successful, others consistently achieve below their potential, academic self-concept is important
Social and Emotional
Self-esteem can be a problem Often have problems coping with social functioning, like developing and maintaining friendships, rejection by peers
Behavior Interventions: adhd or add
Rewards, low involvement strategies, token economy systems
Instructional Interventions
Clear, concise, complete instructions, have students repeat instructions, use active responding
also
NOT parenting, diet or television, physiological causes-heredity, brain differences, environmental causes- lead poisoning, maternal prenatal smoking or alcohol consumption