Expert Reader Processes

  • decoding
  • literal comprehension
  • inferential comprehension
  • comprehension monitoring


  • Matching
  • Recoding

Literal Comprehension

  • Lexical access
  • Parsing

Inferential Comprehension

  • Integration
  • Summarization
  • Elaboration

Comprehension Monitoring

  • Goal setting
  • Goal checking

Reader recognizes word as one unit of information.
Reader sounds out each letter or letter chunks and blends to decode.
Lexical access
Reader accesses word meaning in his/her lexicon, or mental dictionary, store in LTM, and brings the information down to STM.
Reader accesses syntactic rules or generalizations in LTM and applies this knowledge to chunk sentences into meaningful parts.

Reader puts together clues or information in several parts of the text and comes to a conclusion.
Reader recognizes and develops an overaching idea(s) from details.
Reader connects ideas in the text to his/her background knowledge, experiences, or other text.
Goal setting
Reader recognizes that people read differntly for various purposes. Reader selects and uses the reading strategy that is appropriate for the reading objective.
Goal checking
Reader knows various remediation strategies. If a discrepancy exists between the meaning being constructed and the text, a capable reader stops and rereads certain parts, slows down the pace, or uses some other remediation strategy.