Bron-Cohen & Bolton (1993) have stated that the most important elements that underpin autism include: mental handicap. Speech can be delayed or regressed because comprehension can be impaired through sentences, nonverbal and verbal language, and play which is missing. Some autistic children have little language, or badly articulated language, so that the nonverbal child do not have significant language capabilities, but can have strong language and unusual vocabulary, unusual and repetitive use of script, prosody and echolalia (Rapin, 2008).

Another issue is age, because as autistic children get older their autism changes, and some might become more outgoing, while some become less so, yet the significant improvements are generally only for the children that have extra assistance and less mental handicaps, as well as developed speech patterns (Baron-Cohen. S, 1993). 2. 1. 6 CAUSES OF AUTISM Bron-Cohen & Bolton (1993, p. 10) proposed two theories to a child with autism; firstly, autism is a mental illness which is contrary to what was thought 30 years ago and secondly, autism is caused due to biological reasons which causes damage to the brain cells.

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The causation of autism is a subject of intense inquiry. Genetic factors are clearly important. “Gene mutations, gene deletions, copy number variants (CNVs) and other genetic anomalies are all persuasively linked to autism. But none accounts for more than a relatively small fraction of cases. The hypothesis therefore arises that early environmental exposures may also contribute to causation, perhaps acting in concert with genetic susceptibilities.

It may further be hypothesized that variation in the interplay between different environmental exposures and inherited vulnerabilities may account for the observed heterogeneity in the autism phenotype”(Landrigan, 2010, pp, 219). The reasons for autism have not yet been discovered, but there are some researches and studies conducted which showed the following reasons: biological, the difference in the composition of the brain, particularly in part responsible for the involuntary movements of the body, physical disorders (such as genetic diseases, infection of pregnant mothers infected with measles, an imbalance in the metabolism).