Systems Approach to families
how each individual functions in a family and how the affect everyone else in the families
Basic Characteristics that all families tend to have (5)
Purpose, Structure, Rules, Order or Methods of Operation, Preserve/ Perpetuate themselves
Purpose of a Family
Perpetuate the familySocialize the ChildrenServe as an Economic BaseTaking care of Rents in old age
Rules
Each family has its own set of rulesPut in place to help keep fam. intact best they canSocietal rules influence family and differ from culture to culture
What each memeber of the inital couple bring to the relationship?
Standards/ Criteria$$EducationReligionCulture
What adjusments are needed for the couple to make?
Division of Labor/ Respon.Money management (2nd leading cause of separation)Communication SkillsWillingness to CompromiseFriends and social activitiesSexHas to work for Both 
When having a child feelings that can manifest are:(long term commitment)
AnticipationApprehensionJoyDepression (PPD)Challenged (love)Threatened (sibs)
Adaptations a family makes for its new member:


Roles changeChanges in social status (friends? child friendly places)$$ babies cost 160 grand plusRulesPatterns of Relationship
Attachment
bond, need, work hard to make relationship work, lose part of self when they die
Four Signs of Attachment
social smileeye contactbabblingphysical contact
Secure Attachment
Feel safe, free to explore, touches base with mum, wants to be picked up
Insecure Attachment
takes off, doesn’t care about mum, gets upset when picked up
Autonomy
independent, emerges around 2 def. by 3, don’t hinder could mess with personality
Aggression
temper tantrums, yelling, screaminglearned from all around them
Fears
precieved or reallearned from something (mum’s reaction, actual experience)
5 Parenting Styles
High Defree of Psychological ControlOvercontrollingLack of Sufficient ControlHostile Little AffectionWarm and Accepting
High Degree of Psychological Control 
guilt trips, mind gamesyields a child who is regressive and dependent
Over Controlling
by-by play of actionsyields a child who is passive and inhibitive
Lack of Control
child wants attentionyields impulsivity 
Hostile/ Little Affection
swearing, parents model being upset
Warm and Accepting
not fuzzy, nutures child without being overbearingyields well-adjusted child
To Promote Language Development
use more simple vocab/ shorter sentencespause longer and more definitively b/w sentences (conversation)empahzise key words with inflections
To Effect Cognition Well
make whatever the child is doing seem interestingexploratory play(things to play and learn with)Help and encouragement will be there (help weigh pros and cons but child makes ultimate descion, more app when older)Explain and Demonstrate
Rosen’s Stages of Acceptance(for a family with a child with a disability)
Awareness (susupect)Recognition (formal diagnosis)Search for Causation”Search for Cure”Acceptance
Variable affecting Parental Reactions
Social Acceptability/ ExpectationsDenialSocio-Economic StatusBehaviorNature of the Disability
Ambivalence
teet-tooter changin of emotionssends child mixed messagesyields a child that could lead to behavior problemsoverindulge the child
Reality-Free Guilt
come up with an insignificant incident that could be the cause
Reality-Based Guilt
drugs alcohol smokingactaully did things that affected development negatively
Forms of Rejection parents display to thier child with disabilities
Under ExpectationOver EcpectationsPunishment/ Abandonment/ Abuse(some parents feel they are being punished)
Defense Mechanisms
DenialProjection
Denial
Avoid making comparisons with other childshopping behavior (get the diagnosis they want to hear)Parents are just “not there”
Projection
to place blame on someone else3 people blamed: Doc. T and Spousegods environment society
Crisis Stages
Novelty Shock CrisisVaule CrisisReality Crisis
Novelty Shock Crisis
Unsuspecting parentsNeed: 411 and SUPPORT
Value Crisis
Child might no live up to parent’s valuesNeed: Prolonged Counseling
Reality Crisis
Who take care of child$$ insurance might not coverCare medical/ adaptations, medsNeed: Practical Down to earth help
Parents Needs when they Have a child with Disabilities
COMMUNICATIONExplaination of Etiology (causation)HELP- human contact, resources, maintain normal as possible family lifeProviding for that Child’s Future
Reasons Parents Will Withdraw
(leads not to a normal life/ stress on fam)Community pressuresFear of the unknowGuilt ChildcareFamily (external) can be cruel
Providing for a Child’s Future
Have a willWho gets charge of kidsHealthcare proxiesEstablish financial savings for the childrenGuadian Ship
Needs of the Child with a Disability
COMMUNICATIONAcceptance
Needs of Siblings (this case w/o disabilities)
COMMUNICATIONConcerns->work, “catching”, hurt, how will others react, separate identity, guilt$$Is is genetic?ATTENTION (may feel neglected, parents overwhelmed, devote to sib b/c guilt, or just unfit) 
IFSP: Individualized Family Service Plan
IDEA plan for family of child with Special NeedsRequires->multi-dis assessment of strengths and needs of child and services neededFamily Directed Assessment to get IFSGets fam in contact with LEA 
IDEA laws Stated to:
minimize risk of dev.

daysreduce ed. costsmin. institutionalizingmax potential of idenpendent livingTO ENHANCE CAPACIT OF FAMILIES TO MEET THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF THEIR CHIld

Teachers and Families with children adn Special Needs
Treat Parents as IndividualsFocus on the Present and FutureClarify INformationBe Hopefully RealisticHelp Famlies Let GoIncrease Fam Involvement in ClassKnow Available Community ResourcesHelp Reestablish Self-Confidence 
External Factors Causing Stress to Families
$$Work PressureCommunity PressureTimeNo helpNot having resources
Emotional Responses by Families
Stress/ no timeLove/ acceptancehappiness/ sadnessOpen/ closedTrusting/ notanger/ fear
Types of Diversity in Typical Community
religionabilitiessocio-economicfamily make-upsGLBTfoodculture
Teacher Obligations to Family
be openlistendon’t add stress to famiyUnderstand-walk in their shoes$ might be tightWelcome all families in classroombenfit from their knowledge
Seven Characteristics that Influence the Nature of Modern Families
Marital InstabilityChanges in role behaviorMobility, urbanization, and immigrationDecresing family sizeIncreased rate of social changeDevelopment of child-centered societyStress in modern living
Families!
Various Make-ups- nuclear, extended, same sex parents, single parents, divorced Families share bonds, purpose, rules, love
What is family?
small group intimate, transacting, and interdependent persons who share values goals resources and other responsibilities for descions, have a commitmen to another
Trends in Modern Families
Fewer couples are getting legally marriedMore couple are breaking upFamilies are getting smallerChildren experience more transitionsAdults 🙂 with lifeFamily violence underreportedMultiple-earners in famWomen still do most jugglingInequalit is worseningThe future will have more aging families
Strongs Families
work for the well-being of the unitSupport each otherrespect uniqueness in the othersSpend time together to build family cohesionDelegate responsibilityAllow kids to make mistakes and face consequencesHave a spiritual dimensionContribute to the well being of society around them
Dysfunctional Families
defiecient parentscontrolling parentsaddicted parentsabusive parents
Seven Roles Parents
NurturerAs an AdultAs an IndividualAs a workerAS a ConsumerAs a Community MemberAs an Educator
Seven Emotional Responses of Parents (in having chilfren)
Validation of Adult StatusExpansion of SelfAchievement of moral VauleIncreasing sources of affectionStimulation/ noveltyPower/ Influence over anotherAchievement/ competenceSocial Comparasion/ CompetitionEconomic Utility 
Family Involvement
ParentingCommunicationVolunteeringLearning at HomeDecision MakingCollaborating with the Community