Marital satisfaction over time
(how it reshaped)
When they’re newlywed, they have a high marital satisfaction rate. Then it declines around the child rearing time, because they have less time for marital closeness. Then it rises again because of the launched period, meaning they’re older and they have more time to each other after they’ve sent their children off. Also known as the U Shaped—Marital Satisfaction Curve.
Sibling relationship in later life
Siblings often have long-term, permanent, and supportive relationships. Siblings are like “insurance policy”, they’re social support (especially for never married, few children, widowed). They’re important in later life because they’re not used as caregiving support; they’re there for social support.
Silver divorce
Divorce among those 55+. It’s becoming more common because of the many baby boomers getting divorces.
Who is most likely to marry later in life and what are the reasons
Men are more likely to be married because women are more likely to be widowed. Women usually don’t get married in later life because they’re aged.
sex ratio for older people
There is an uneven sex ratio; 82 men for every 100 women. This could be a reason as to why men are more likely to get married at an older age than women.
Sanctification
where only positive memories remembered, puts the person who died up on a pedestal.
Results from losing spouse
Men worse off emotionally because wife was closest confidant and now he feels isolated
Women worse off financially because if husband dies they spent savings on care of spouse, may have to wait for retirement benefits, death of pensioner with pension.
Medicaid
For poor people of all ages, funded by general tax revenues, needs based, not all in poverty are covered, old persons needing nursing home. Doctors may not accept Medicaid.
Medicare
for elderly and kidney patients. Partly funded by Social Security and premiums. It is designed for acute care, not long-term care (not for chronic problems). Only covers small % of nursing home care, and just recently added prescription drug plan.
What are people dying of now as opposed to the past?
In the past, people died of acute diseases. Today, chronic illness is a more likely cause of death; it’s usually associated with old age, long duration of death, death in institutions (hospital, nursing homes).
Divorce Rate
The divorce rate is NOT spiking. The divorce rate rose in the 1960’s, leveled off mid 1980’s, and now a bit of a decline. It’s because of aging of baby boom, divorce most likely in they’re only married for 2-4 years, while longer marriages are less likely to divorce.
Societal influences for divorce
Decreased economic interdependence, fewer moral and religious sanctions, divorce models, changing family functions, less parental control over marriage, societal goal of happiness, liberalized divorce laws.
Decreased economic interdependence
which is traditional family self-sufficient unit and survival is difficult outside, where the members are economically bound together.
Fewer moral and religious sanctions
another social factor of divorce. The catholic church and others no longer ex-communicate, some churches now accept divorce as an option.
Divorce Models
knowing someone who is divorced, they’re more likely to divorce themselves.
Changing family functions
education, religion, protective services, police, today the family is the primary emotional function.
Less parental control over marriage
reliance on love rather than practical pre-arrangement which is more intense but more fragile.
Societal goal of happiness
major reason for marriage, and divorce, and remarriage.
Liberalized divorce laws
include no fault divorce, shorter waiting periods to get divorced, and you can do it yourself (computer filing and a small fee is all you need).
Child custody types
sole custody, joint custody (joint legal and joint physical), split custody, non-custodial parents
Sole Custody
child lives with one parent, sole responsibility. Usually, other parent can still see child unless parental rights are relinquished.
Joint custody (two types)
joint legal and joint physical
joint legal custody
child lives with one, both share in legal decisions.
joint legal custody
child lives with one, both share in legal decisions.
joint physical custody
children live with both, dividing time between. sometimes the child decides they don’t want to go back and forth and at age 12 or above, they can make the decision to just stay at one parents house.
what is the age to decide against living with both parents?
12
split custody
children divided among the two parents. Mother usually takes the daughters and the father takes the sons. Only about 5% of divorced families do this, since it may have negative effects on sibling bonds.
non-custodial parents
women have custody but only 13% of non-custodial parents are women. Non-custodial fathers have limited roles sometimes, Disneyland dad’s is where they only see special occasions, disappearing dad’s are usually absent. This causes later resentment, isolation, relationship neglect between the child and father.
Family disorganization model
ABC-X model.states that A is the stressor interacting with B which is the ability to cope with a crisis interacting with C which is the family’s appraisal of the stressor point produces X which is the crisis.
Nadir
low point of family disorganization, where conflicts may develop over how the situation should be handled.
Recovery (in family disorganization model)
where the crisis has hit rock bottom, and things begin to improve. either by trial and error or by thoughtful planning, family members usually arrive at new routines and reciprocal expectations.
Grandparenting is now a function of what?
generations, not age because people had children while young.
What percent of children are raised by grandparents
10% of all children live in homes maintained by their grandparent.
Surrogate grandparent
when they take care of the grandchild while adult child is at work, temporarily during adult child crisis, or permanently in adult child crisis like addiction, incarceration, or death.
How are step mothers illustrated?
Historically, men remarried quickly, and may have not known new wife very well. Wife may have more parental responsibilities and not know how to “be a mother…” in a sense. They’re illustrated as evil and disliked, like in fairytales.
How many people don’t have insurance?
46 million Americans have no health insurance.
who typically lives in a nursing home and how many live in them?
Typical characteristics of nursing home residents are really old, women, childless, never married, and sick. Less than 5% of 65+ in the U.S. live in nursing homes.
Boomerang children relating to stress in later life marriages
Boomerang children- when the adult child moves out of the parents home, and then moves back in after a period of time. This causes stress for the parents.
Different types of grandparenting
formal, fun seeker, reservoir of family wisdom, family pillar, distant figure, surrogate
formal grandparent
gives treats, indulges grandchild, maintains clear lines between parenting and grandparenting, adult children make/enforce rules—may be older grandparent.
fun seeker grandparent
playful, informal relationship, mutual satisfaction emphasized, usually a younger grandparent.
Reservoir of Family Wisdom
Grandparent seen as possessing special skills, family knowledge, expects adult children and grandchildren to be subordinate, they’re authoritian, patriarch, matriarch.
Family pillar grandparenting
support in a crisis, shows strength of family help during divorce, etc.
distant figure grandparenting
contact on holidays, otherwise remote, geographic distance may be a factor.
covenant marriage
alternative to standard marriage that couples may select at the time of marriage or later. It is essentially a return to fault-based divorce because it requires spouse to prove fault or to live apart for a substantial length of time to obtain a divorce or do both.
what is hospice, and who are candidates for it?
Only about 10% of eligible persons use this. It is where they focus more on the patient than anything else, they usually have 6 months or fewer to live. They provide respect, dignity, pain management and support to dying person and their family. They may be in-patient building or at home, or be a support team.
what happens if a parent has a dying child?
When a child dies, parents are more likely to divorce. It is not a normative condition since usually the parent predeceases child. They won’t be able to talk to anyone about it, because they probably only have a few (if any) peers in the same boat.
what does death of a sibling do the the child and how do parents react?
They pay special attention to sibling’s grief because it is very hard on them.
Stations of divorce
emotional, legal, community, psychic, economic, co-parental
emotional station of divorce
withhold positive emotions and communications from the relationship, typically replacing these with alienating actions and words.
legal station of divorce
dissolution of the marriage by the state through a court order terminating the marriage
community station of divorce
refers to ruptures of relationships and changes in social networks that come about as a result of divorce. At the same time, divorce provides the opportunity for forming new ties.
psychic station of divorce
refers to the regaining of psychological autonomy through emotional separation from the personality and influence of the former spouse. You must distance yourself from the still-loved aspects of the spouse, from the hated aspects, and “form the baleful presence that led to depression and loss of self-esteem.”
psychic station of divorce
refers to the regaining of psychological autonomy through emotional separation from the personality and influence of the former spouse. You must distance yourself from the still-loved aspects of the spouse, from the hated aspects, and “form the baleful presence that led to depression and loss of self-esteem.”
economic station of divorce
money, women are affected than men.
co parental station of divorce
the different types of custody and how it affects not only the divorced parents but also the children involved.
grief
the response to the loss of someone, like despair, adaptation, guilt, shock, denial, and depression.
Bereavement
STATUS of having lost the deceased
CHIP
child health insurance program
CHIP definition
Child Health Insurance Program: created in 1997. Clinton’s help for uninsured children, pregnant women not included, some states slow to enact and they lost funding. Some families didn’t sign up for this, and states may develop new plan for kids or add to Medicaid.
what’s happening with divorce rate?
The divorce rate is NOT spiking. The divorce rate rose in the 1960’s, leveled off mid 1980’s, and now a bit of a decline. It’s because of aging of baby boom, divorce most likely in they’re only married for 2-4 years, while longer marriages are less likely to divorce.
joint legal vs joint legal physical
1. Joint legal custody- child lives with one, both share in legal decisions.
2. Joint physical custody- children live with both, dividing time between. Sometimes the child decides they don’t want to go back and forth and at age 12 or above, they can make the decision to just stay at one parents house.
what grandparent does one feel closest with
adult grandchildren report greatest attachment to maternal grandmother.
double remarriage
are when they both are remarrying. They are 2x as likely to divorce.
single marriage
not different from original marriage in divorce likelihood. Only remarried once, 1st marriage for one but not the other.
displacement homemakers
(Has to do with no-fault divorce)- older, no marketable skills, must find work. May be worse off if assets/home split 50/50.
displacement homemakers
(Has to do with no-fault divorce)- older, no marketable skills, must find work. May be worse off if assets/home split 50/50.
Social Security
Social security is the most popular & successful U.S. policy. 40% of the income of Americans age 65+ is from social security benefits and related federal programs.
Explicit Family Policies
assist families, individuals too. Health care policy is example, Medicare, Medicaid.
baby boomers cohort
40.2 million Americans are 65 or older, because of the baby boomers. They were born between 1946 and 1964.
depression cohort
7% of the adult US population represents depression cohort, born between 1912 and 1921, defined by the Great Depression. There was a huge economic drop that they experienced.
remarriage chains
Paths that link individuals across household thru ties of disrupted and new unions, they might be the most realistic way of examining step arrangements, instead of assuming stepfamilies all live in the same household. The system depends on cooperation of all involved—can be easily disrupted! People in blood related families often give favors based on good will—but remarriage chains may not run so smoothly.