TECHNOLOGY RAM
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY  CAN BE ERASED OR WRITTEN OVER LIKE A BUCKET, IT GETS FULL. MORE IS BETTER IN A COMPUTER
TECHNOLOGY ROM
READ ONLY MEMORY CAN’T WRITE TO IT;PERMENANTLY RECORDED BY MANUFACTURER
TECHNOLOGY;LAN
LOCAL AREA NETWORK;EACH SCHOOL HAS OWN LAN, BASED ON SWITCHED ETHERNET, USED FOR ATTENDANCE AND GRADES
TECHNOLOGY;SERVERS
COMPUTERS THAT OFFER RESOURCES;READ 180, FILE SHARING, PRINTER SHARING, INTERNET, INTRANET, PROJECT COLLABORATION, BACK UP ARE ALL LOCATED ON SERVER.

TECHNOLOGY;DASD
DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE;DISK DRIVE IN MAINFRAME OF THE COMPUTER.;OLD TECHTAPE DRIVE READS AND WRITES, SLOW SEEK TIME OLD
TECHNOLOGY;CD ROM
=700 FLOPPY DISKS;OLD TECH;WORM: WRITE ONCE READ MANY: MAGNETIC OPTIC STORAGE DEVICE;VIDEO DISC or VIDEO TAPE;
TECHNOLOGY;INPUT DEVICES
;;MOUSE AND KEYBOARD SEND DATA, SCANNER, TOUCH SCREEN, BAR CODE READER, VOICE, PROBE,NIC, SOUND CARD MODEM
TECHNOLOGY;OUTPUT DEVICE
PRINTERS, MONITORS, NIC, MODEM, PLOTTER, SPEAKERS, DISK;PLOTTER: VECTOR GRAPHICS PRINTING, DEVICE THAT CONNECTS TO COMPUTER, COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING, PRINTS LARGE VOLUMES OR COMPLEX DRAWINGS, LARGE PAPER SIZES.;DAISY WHEEL PRINTER: USED FOR PREMIUM PRINTING (NOT REALLY BUT THATS WHAT’S ON THE TEST) LASER PRINTERS ARE TOP OF THE LINE
TECHNOLOGY SOFTWARE AND SCHOOL MANAGEMENT MICROSOFT WORD:  WORD PROCESSINGSPREAD SHEET: EXCEL USED FOR NUMBERING, ANALYZING INFORMATION, CALCULATING FTE

  • DATABASE MGMT:ACCESS, MANAGEMENT OF INTERRELATED FACTS
  • DATABASE= INDEX CARD OR ROLODEX FUNCTIONS
  • SPREADSHEETS= BUDGETS OR FTE
  • PRESENTATION GRAPHICS-POWER POINT
  • COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE: ONE COMPUTER TO ANOTHER"TALKING"
  • BROWSER-INTERNET, USING GRAPHICAL INTERFACE
  • =NOT ABLE TO COMMUNICATE WITH HARDWARE
  • OPERATING SYSTEMS DO THIS.

    IT IS BETWEEN APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE, LIKE AN ONION :LAYERED

HARDWARE(PRINTER,MONITOR)>OPERATING SYSTEM>APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE
TECHNOLOGY LEGAL PRACTICES:SOFTWARE
SINGLE USER LICENSE: 1 PERSON USE, CAN MAKE BACK UP COPY LAB PACK: LAB USE ONLY STATE LICENSE: EVERY MACHINE IN THE SCHOOL PUBLIC DOMAIN: ADOBE ACROBAT READER (FREE) SHAREWARE: FREE A LIMITED NUMBER OF TIMES, TEST PRODUCT FOR A PERIOD OF TIME, "14 DAYS FREE, AND THEN $29.99 TO BUY.  
TECHNOLOGY COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI)
INSTRUCTION PERFORMED BY COMPUTER:-**PRETEST-PRESENT MATERIALS-WORK AT OWN PACE-**REPETITIVE DRILLS, GAME BASED-POST TESTLOOP BACK TO DEFICIENCIES-RECORDS SCORES AND PROGRESS-SIMULATIONEX.: SIM CITY, OREGON TRAIL, MATH BLASTER
TECHNOLOGY COMPUTER MANAGED INSTRUCTION (CMI)
-SUCCESS MAKER, RIVER DEEP (IN ADDITION TO CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION) DIAGNOSTIC, PRESCRIPTIVEUSED BY STUDENT, NOT USED BY OFFICE CLERK
TECHNOLOGY COMPUTER LAB CONSIDERATIONS:

  1. LIGHTING
  2. AC
  3. NO CHALK (DUST)
  4. CARPET (YES/NO) STATIC ELECTRICITY
  5. POWER, BREAKERS TRIPPING
  6. NETWORKING(DATA PORTS, INTERNET)
  7. PHONES
  8. FURNITURE
  9. SECURITY

TECHNOLOGY ISDN
TALKING TO BIGGER NETWORK INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK
TECHNOLOGY T1
   FIBER OPTIC LINE, RELIABLE
TECHNOLOGY POTS
MODEMS PLAIN OLD TELEPHONE SYSTEM
TECHNOLOGY Kbps
modem(slow) KILO-THOUSANDS
TECHNOLOGY WAN
  WIDE AREA NETWORK(DISTRICT)
TECHNOLOGY LAN
  LOCAL AREA NETWORK(SCHOOL)
TECHNOLOGY Mbps
(MILLIONS) BITS MEDIUM SPEED
TECHNOLOGY MBps
  MILLION BYTES MEDIUM SPEED  
TECHNOLOGY GBps
BILLION GIG=BILLION FAST
TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
POTS DOESN’T FIT;C++ADAUNIXPERLJAVA
TECHNOLOGY;SAFE GUARDS
;PHYSICAL, ELECTRONIC—BEST SAFE GUARD- USE PREVENTION- LOCK THE DOOR- (STRANGE BUT TRUE)
TECHNOLOGY CONNECTORS ON BACK OF COMPUTER
   RF MODULATORRCA/NTSCRJ11RJ45 (CONNECTORS "R")
FINANCEFUND
SELF BALANCING

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  1. GENERAL FUND
  2. DEBT SERVICE FUND
  3. CAPITAL PROJECT FUND
  4. SPECIALREVENUE FUND

CAN TRANSFER MONEY FROM CAPITAL SERVICE FUND TO DEBT SERVICE FUND TITLE ONE TEACHER PAID THROUGH SPECIAL REVENUE FUND

FINANCEGENERAL FUND
OPERATING FUND, BILLS, SALARIES
FINANCEDEBT SERVICE FUND
  MORTGAGE PAYMENTS
FINANCECAPITAL PROJECTS FUND
  (CAPITAL OUTLAY)MAINTENENCE
FINANCE SPECIAL REVENUE FUND
FEDERAL MONEYSCHOOL LUNCH MONEY
FINANCECOURT CASES

  • 1971 SERRANO VS. PRIEST
  • 1973 RODRIGUEZ VS. SAN ANTONIO

 

FINANCE  1971 SERRANO V. PRIEST (CA)FISCAL NEUTRALITY
BASED ON CA CONSTITUTION, SCHOOL FUNDING EQUITABLE (NOT FAIR), WATTS(BAD EDUCATION), BEVERLY HILLS (GOOD EDUCATION) CA SUPREME COURT- MUST CHANGE MANNER OF FUNDING FOR "ALL STATE SCHOOLS" TO CREATE "EQUITABLE EDUCATION" LEGISLATION IN FLORIDA CHANGED FUNDING PRACTICES
FINANCE  1973 RODRIGUEZ V.

SAN ANTONIO

FEDERAL CASE BASED ON FEDERAL CONTITUTION DISPARITY IN EDUCATION, VIOLATION OF 14TH AMENDMENT- EQUAL PROTECTION US SUPREME COURT- FUNDING IN TEAXS IS POOR, BUT IT’S NOT A "FEDERAL ISSUE" IT’S A STATE ISSUE
FINANCE  1973FLORIDA F.E.F.P.
FLORIDA EDUCATION FINANCING PROGRAM ONLY PROVIDES FOR THE GENERAL FUND "EACH DISTRICT GETS SCREWED EQUALLY"
FINANCEF.T.E. 
  STUDENT MUST BE PRESENT WEEK OF COUNT OR 6 DAYS PRIOR (PCF) PROGRAM COST FACTOREACH PROGRAM HAS WEIGHTING(ESE, REGULAR STUDENT, K-3, 4-8, 9-12)GRADES 4-8 GET A RATING OF 1 EVERTHING ELSE GETS A BIT HIGHER
FEFP=FTExPCDxDCDxBSA
FINANCED.

C.D.

DISTRICT COST DIFFERENTIAL WEIGHTING FOR DISTRICT, COST OF LIVING, ELECTRICITY, WATER DADE COMPARED TO MARION COUNTY
FINANCE B.S.

A.

BASE STUDENT ALLOCATION CHANGES EVERY YEAR, BASED ON $ FROM LEGISLATORS, $ IN GENERAL FUND FOR SCHOOL DISTRICT
FINANCE BSA CONT..

..

  • Real property= required millage (values) high value or low value of property for child. State will give poor district the difference if their BSA is low because of property values
  • state will take away from rich districts
  • state can impose discretionary millage
  • .51 mills or $200 per child .

    25 mills gave less- state gives it.

  • CAPITAL PROJECTS FUND: SCHOOL BOARD CAN IMPOSE UP TO 2 MILLS FOR THIS FUND

FINANCE  DOCUMENTING EXPENDITURESNUMBER SYSTEM
FIRST 3 #= FUND FROM WHICH TAKENNEXT 3 #= OBJECT, DESCRIBES THAT WHICH WAS PURCHASED TYPES OF OBJECTS:

  1. SALARY
  2. BENEFITS
  3. PURCHASED SERVICES
  4. ENERGY SERVICES
  5. MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES
  6. CAPITAL OUTLAY
  7. TRANSFERS

NEXT 4# FUNCTION- WHAT WE PURCHASED IT FOR

  1. INSTRUCTION
  2. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT
  3. GENERAL SUPPORT
  4. COMMUNITY SERVICES  NEXT # COST CENTER #, #OF SCHOOL

FINANCE 
FINANCE DOCUMENTING EXPENDITURES CONT… SCHOOL BOARD MUST HOLD AT LEAST 2 ADVERTISED MEETINGS:

  1. BUDGET HEARING- PUBLIC INVITED
  2. BUDGET ADOPTED MEETING

FISCAL YEAR- FROM JULY 1 IN ONE YEAR TO JUNE 30 OF THE NEXT

CONT..

BIDS: SPECIFICATIONS FOR WHAT WE WISH TO PURCHASE, SENT TO VENDORS, FORMALIZED PROCESS. $10,000 OR MORE MUST USE BIDDING PROCESS Q: PRINCIPAL WISHED TO PURCHASE 3 ITEMS, TOTAL COST MORE THAN $10,000( WHAT DOES PRINCIPAL DO?) A: MUST BID IT

  • CANT CHANGE SPECIFICATIONS OF BID, MUST FOLLOW CLOSELY
  • CAN’T PAY WITH CASH-MUST HAVE PAPER TRAIL-CHECKS,TICKET STUBS ETC..
  • MUST HAVE RECORD OF WHO RECIEVES FREE TICKETS, TICKETS OF DIFFERENT AMOUNTS
  • MUST FOLLOW SPIRIT OF THE LAW-CREATE PAPER TRAIL FOR AUDITORS

FINANCE INTERNAL ACCOUNTS  
RULES

  1. EVERY PENNY MUST BE SUBMITTED EVERY DAY
  2. MUST GET RECEIPT
  3. MUST DEPOSIT WITHIN 5 BUSINESS DAYS
  • PTA, BOOSTERS HAVE OWN CHECKING ACCOUNTS
  • IF THE KIDS MAKE MONEY IT MUST BE RUN THROUGH INTERNAL ACCOUNTS
  • IF PARENTS MAKE MONEY, THEY WHAT THEY WANT WITH IT.

 

CONT..

. MONEY SPENT FROM INTERNAL ACCOUNT (APPROVAL PROCESS)

  • MUST BE APPROVED BY SPONSOR(SPANISH CLUB ETC…

    )

  • PRINCIPAL SIGNS CHECK
  • 2ND (DESIGNEE) SIGNS CHECK

ONE PERSON IN THE SCHOOL MUST BE BONDED (INSURED) USUALLY BOOKKEEPER.THE PRINCIPAL IS RESPONSIBLE FOR INTERNAL ACCOUNTS

FINANCEON VARIOUS FELE’s
PROGRAM COST FACTORSRULES

  1. 80%RULE 80% OF $$$ GENERATED BY A PROGRAM MUST GO TOWARD THE PROGRAM
  2. 90% RULE- 90% OF $$$ GENERATED THROUGH K-3 PROGRAM MUST GO TOWARD K-3 PROGRAM
  3. 100%RULE- ESOL
  4. 38% OF LOTTERY GOES TOWARD EDUCATION, 12% ADMINISTRATION COSTS, 50%PRIZES

FINANCEVERTICAL EQUITY
   PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS MUST BE TREATED DIFFERENTLY
FINANCEHORIZONTAL EQUITY
   PEOPLE GET SAME TREATMENT
FINANCE SYSTEM THEORIES

  • PPBS
  • GANTT
  • FEDERAL IMPACT AID
  • PERT

 

FINANCE PPBS
PLAN PROGRAM BUDGETING SYSTEM DEVELOPED BY MILITARY, ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES
FINANCEGANTT
SYSTEMS THEORY USED FOR BUILDING PROJECTS, SCHEDULING LONG-TERM PROJECTS- ex. begin making your coffee while you are showering, doing hair….
FINANCEFEDERAL IMPACT AID
AREA WITH A LOT OF FEDERAL LAND IN DISTRICT, NO HOTELS ON FEDERAL BEACHES- NO TAX $MADE ON LAND.

GOV’T GIVES$IN LIEU OF PROPERTY TAX- GOES TO GENERAL FUND

FINANCEPERT
PLANNING EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE BASED ON GANTT, 1960’s DEPT OF DEFENSE SETS UP TIMELINES FOR LONG-TERM PROJECTS
CONT…                                         FINANCEQ: GENERAL FUNDS BUDGET= 85%- SALARIES AND BENEFITSQ: DONATIONS- SPECIAL REVENUE FUNDQ:GREATEST RATE OF RETURN REALIZED- ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
BEFORE FEFP (1973-1974) MFP(MINIMUM FOUNDATION PLAN)  DIFFERENCES: MFP BASED ON NEED OR #OF TEACHERS OR INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS, FEFP BASED ON NEED OR #OF STUDENTS
FINANCE MEASURE OF NEED IN FLORIDA
CAPITAL OUTLAY (EQUIPMENT ACCOUNT), MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES- PRINCIPALS FUNDS.  CAN REQUEST DISTRICT TO TRANSFER $ BETWEEN ACCOUNTS AND WRITE PURCHASE ORDER WITH OUT PROPER ACCOUNT.
FINANCE ADA
     AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE
FINANCE ADM 
    AVERAGE DAILY MEMBERSHIP
FINANCE AD VALORUM TAXES
PROPERTY BASED ON THE ASSESSED VALUE OF PROPERTY

  • TRANSPORTATION$$COMES FROM FTE
  • CUSTODIAL STAFF COMES FROM SQUARE FOOTAGE

 

FINANCEOLD DELUDER SATAN ACT
 ACT WHICH REPRESENTS EARLIEST EDUCATION LAW
FINANCESTRAYER AND HAIG PLANS
    ALSO KNOWN AS: FOUNDATION PLAN
FINANCEHUMAN CAPITAL=

  1. PEOPLE
  2. MONEY SPENT ON            "IN-SERVICES"

LAW AND PERSONNEL FEDERAL LAWS

  • 1ST AMENDMENT: FREE SPEECH, EXPRESSION, SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
  • "PURE SPEECH" PROTECTED, APPAREL- NOT AS MUCH

NO HATS ALLOWED – CAN DO, JEWISH HAT BUT NO COWBOY HAT

  • US CONSTITUTION IS A BALANCING ACT BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE SCHOOL DISTRICT

SCHOOL SECURITY OUTWEIGHS SOME FREEDOMSSCHOOL BOARD- WHAT WILL BE TAUGHT, PEDAGOGY

  • OUT OF SCHOOL SPEECH/ACTIONS FOR TEACHERS LETTER TO THE EDITOR-YES, YOU CAN WITH OUT GETTING FIRED

                 LAW AND PERSONNEL GOVERNMENT IS BOSS- MUST SHOW GOVERNMENT INTEREST OUTWEIGHS INDIVIDUAL 14TH AMENDMENT: DUE PROCESS LAWBILL OF RIGHTS APPLIES TO STATES AS WELL AS FED. GOV’TMAKING SOMEONE MAD IS OK(PICKERING)ATTEND "MEETING ATHE FLAG POLE"- YOU CAN ATTEND BUT NOT LEAD 1ST AMENDMENT: SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATESCHOOL NOT TO PROMOTE RELIGION, NOR SHALL WE INHIBIT IT (FREE EXERCISE THEREOF)
Q: "STUDENT" WANTS TO DISTRIBUTE RELIGOUS MATERIAL YES

  • REASONABLE TIME, PLACE AND MANNER OF STUDENT DISTRIBUTION (BEFORE AND AFTER SCHOOL, LOBBY, PASSIVE DISTRIBUTION (SET UP ON TABLE) NOT DISRUPTIVE
  • PRINCIPAL HAS DUTY TO REVIEW MATERIAL
  • STUDENT NEWSPAPER CRITICIZES ADMINISTRATION- LET THEM PUBLISH
  • DURING  "FREE READING PERIOD" -STUDENT READS BIBLE- LEAVE HIM/HER ALONE DISRUPTION IS THE TRUMP CARD
  • GRADUATION PRAYER- JACKSONVILLE- OK

LAW AND PERSONNEL 4TH AMENDMENT: SEARCH AND SEIZURE PRINCIPAL OR DESIGNEE MUST HAVE REASONABLE SUSPICION ONLY- LOWER THAN PROBABLE CAUSE 14TH AMENDMENT– LIFE LIBERTY AND PROPERTY WITHOUT DUE PROCESS OF LAW. STUDENT HAS PROPERTY RIGHT TO GO TO SCHOOL, EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAW FEDERAL LAW– NO ONE MAY DICRIMINATE FOR.

.. EXCEPTIONS:GENDER: SUPERVISOR OF LOCKER ROOM, BONIFIED OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENT, PRINCIPAL OF CATHOLIC SCHOOL MAY HAVE TO BE CATHOLIC

LAW AND PERSONNEL         ADA 
  APPLIES TO COMPANY WITH 15 OR MORE EMPLOYEES- RAMP, HANDICAPPED RESTROOM NEEDED.
LAW AND PERSONNEL FLORIDA STATUTES

  • CHAPTER 1012
  • CHAPTER 447
  • CHAPTER 119

NOT ALLOWED TO SEE: MEDICAL, CURRENT EVAL., TAX EXEMPTIONS ON W-4

LAW AND PERSONNEL CHAPTER 1012
   TEACHERS CONTRACTS
 LAW AND PERSONNEL CHAPTER 447
  COLLECTIVE TEACHERS BARGAINING AGREEMENT
LAW AND PERSONNEL CHAPTER 119
  PERSONNEL FILEOPEN TO PUBLIC
LAW AND PERSONNEL COPYRIGHT
TITLE OF US CODE– PROTECTS UNTO CREATOR EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS TO REPRODUCE AND SELL EXCEPTIONS: FAIR USE- PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND NON-PROFIT PRIVATE SCHOOLS DVD: IF "LEGALLY MADE", PART OF CURRICULUM, IT MAY BE SHOWN IN CLASS WITH OUT COPY RIGHT PERMISSION.

 PHOTOCOPY SMALL POEM– OK- "FAIR USE"

LAW AND PERSONNEL STATE LAW
PERSONNEL: WHEN FIRST HIRED- ANNUAL CONTRACT, 97 DAYS PROBATION, CAN BE SENT HOME ON DAYS NOTICE, NO RIGHT TO DUE PROCESS IN 97 DAY PERIOD, DON’T NEED REASONS, DO NOT GIVE THEM A REASON IF THEY ASK. CAN BE NON-RENEWED AT END OF ANNUAL CONTRACT WITH NO PROPERTY RIGHT, NO DUE PROCESS. DON’T NEED A REASON, DON’T GIVE REASONS.

 2ND YEAR: ANNUAL CONTRACT- RIGHT TO JOB FOR A YEAR *3RD YEAR: SAME- SCHOOL BOARD- PSC (PROFESSIONAL SERVICE CONTRACT) TENURE OR NON-RENEW OR 4TH YEAR ANNUAL CONTRACT *Now have continuing property right in job 

CONT… 1984– AWARDED PSC NOT "CONTINUING CONTRACT" ONCE YOU HAVE "PROPERTY RIGHT" IN JOB YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO "DUE PROCESS" GREATER THE RIGHT TAKEN AWAY, THE MORE DUE PROCESS NEEDED
LAW AND PERSONNELGOSS v. LOPEZGOSS PROCESS

  • TELL WHAT STUDENT DID WRONG
  • KID TELLS SIDE OF STORY(STUDENT NARRATIVE)
  • SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE
  • CONTACT MOM OR DAD(GOOD FAITH EFFORT)
  • LETTER HOME WITHIN 24HOURS (SENT USPS)

FIRING OR DISMISSING SOMEONE IS A MUCH GREATER PROCESS

LAW AND PERSONNELSTATE REASONS FOR DISMISSAL 5 DEADLY SINS

  1. CONTINUING GROSS INSUBORDINATION
  2. INCOMPETENCE
  3. NEGLECT OF DUTY
  4. MISCONDUCT IN OFFICE-VIOLATION OF STATE CODE OF ETHICS, STATE BOARD RULES
  5. CONVICTION OF CRIME INVOLVING MORAL TURPITUDE- BREACH OF TRUST

LAW AND PERSONNELCOLLECTIVE BARGAINING
CHAPTER 447 FLORIDA STATUTES

  • EACH DISTRICT NEGOTIATES WITH TEACHER GROUP
  • BARGAINING UNIT=GROUP OF TEACHERS
  • BARGAINING AGENT =UNION

TO CHANGE UNIONS (BARGAINING AGENT)- PETITION SIGNED BY 10% OF TEACHERS REQUESTING VOTE FOR NEW BARGAINING AGENT- 51% WINS

LAW AND PERSONNELNEGOTIATION PROCESS

  • AGENT SHOWS UP
  • NEGOTIATES WITH SUPERINTENDENT
  • IF AGREEMENT REACHED- GREAT!
  • SENT TO TEACHERS FOR RATIFICATION
  • SENT TO SCHOOL BOARD FOR RATIFICATION

LAW AND PERSONNELNOT IN AGREEMENT, IMPASSE

  • SEND MEDIATOR BETWEEN TWO TEAMS, DON’T AGREE
  • SPECIAL MASTER NO AUTHORITY, ONLY RECCOMENDS, DON’T AGREE
  • SCHOOL BOARD DECIDES OUTCOME IF MEDIATOR AND SPECIAL MASTER FAIL TO COME UP WITH AN AGREEMENT

LAW AND PERSONNELONCE AGREEMENT RATIFIED

  • GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE (REQUIRED)- MEMBER OF BARGAINING UNIT CAN VINDICATE RIGHTS UNDER CONTRACT. tHE FORMS ARE ON THE BACK OF THE CONTRACT.

EX. "MADE TO TEACH 6 PERIODS" – FILE GRIEVANCE AFTER WORKING THROUGH CHAIN OF COMMAND.FINAL STEP MAY BE ARBITRATION- FORMALIZED PROCEDURE- BINDINGARBITRATORS ARE EXPENSIVE- $3000-$5000SCHOOL BOARD AND UNION SPLIT COSTUNION MAKES THE DESCISION WHETHER TO ARBITRATE- ITS NOT ABOUT MONEY, ITS ABOUT PRECEDENT GRIEVANCE MAY END IN BINDING ARBITRATION