Final Report on Quality Assurance of Teacher Training Programs Conducted by Directorate of Staff Development Lahore, Punjab Third Party Review and Assessment The World Bank, Islamabad Prof. Mahmood H. Butt and Mr. Fawwad Shams Consultants UNESCO Project 478/07 December 14, 2007 Table of Contents S. No. Topics/Section Tables of Figures Abbreviation and Acronyms Executive Summary Introduction Background a. Brief History of DSD and its Evolution b. Current Mandate and Organization of DSD c. Role of Provincial Institute of Education d.
Government College of Elementary Teachers (GCETs) e. District Training and Support Centres (DTSCs) District Education Department (DED) and Implementation of CPD Punjab Teacher Education Policy Making and Implementation Continuous Professional Development framework a. Target Population of CPD b. Diagram of CPD Framework c. Training of Lead Teacher Educator (LTE) d. Cluster Teacher Support Centre (CTSC) e. District Teacher Educator (DTE) f. Basic Foundation Module of PSTs (BFM) CPD Framework and Implementation Review Report a. CPD Framework b.
Implementation Review Report i DTE Training ii PSTs Training iii PSTs Classroom Teaching iv Recommendations Overall Recommendations a. District Implementation Level b. District Policy Level c. Provincial Implementation Level d. Provincial Policy Level Draft terms of reference Field Visit Report: June 14-18, 2007 Monitoring Form Field Visit Report: July 27-August 17, 2007 Field Visit Report: August 20-24, 2007 Field Visit Report: October 8-12, 2007 List of Individuals Interviewed List of key documents and Training Modules Reviewed
Page iii iv v 1 1 2 2 4 5 5 7 8 11 11 13 15 16 16 17 19 20 20 23 26 28 28 29 29 30 30 32 35 37 40 46 49 54 57 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Annexure I II III IV V VI VII VIII ii Table of Figures Figures Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. The New DSD Structure as an Apex Body DSD Coordination with Major Stakeholders for Programme Development and Implementation Administrative Staff Structure of each DTSC Target Population CPD Framework and its constituent core components Page No. 3 4 6 12 13 iii Abbreviation and Acronyms
AIOU BFM CPD CTSC DED DG(s) DoE DRC DSD DTE(s) DTEF ESP(s) EST GCET(s) HEC HRM HST(s) HT(s) ICT IEC INSET ITD LTE(s) M&E NGO(s) PD PEC PEF PER PESRP PMIU PST(s) PTB PTEF QA RoB RPM SC SST(s) TDP TDMIS TE(s) TEF TOT UOE VU Allama Iqbal Open University Basic Foundation Module Continuing Professional Development Cluster Training and Support Centre District Education Department District Government(s) Department of Education Departmental Review Committee Directorate of Staff Development District Teacher Educator(s) District Teacher Education Forum External Service Provider(s) Elementary School Teacher Government College(s) for Elementary
Teachers Higher Education Commission Human Resource Management Higher Secondary Teacher(s) Head Teacher(s) Information and Communication Technology Information, Education and Communication In-Service Education and Training Institute for Teacher Development Lead Teacher Educator(s) Monitoring and Evaluation Non-Governmental Organization(s) Professional Development Punjab Examinations Commission Punjab Education Foundation Performance Evaluation Report Punjab Education Sector Reform Program Program Monitoring and Implementation Unit Primary School Teacher(s) Punjab Textbooks Board Punjab Teacher Education Forum Quality Assurance Rules of Business Regional Program Manager School Council Secondary School Teacher(s) Teacher Development Plan Teacher Development Management Information System Teacher Educator(s) Teacher Education Forum Training of Trainer University of Education Virtual University iv Executive Summary • This interim report in based on desk review of documents related to continuous professional development of PSTs provided by Directorate of Staff Development to the international consultant.
The national consultant undertook field visits to selected in-services training sites to observe first hand training of DTEs and interviewed various stakeholders. Since 2004 DSD has been reorganized as “Apex Body” to enhance professional competence of teachers, head teachers, district teacher educators and trainers of teachers using the Continuous Professional Development framework. Vision of DSD is to develop a knowledgeable, committed, motivated, competent and ethically sound cadre of educational personnel. Over the last three years DSD has conceptualized a well developed comprehensive model of continuous professional development of primary school teachers, teacher educators at the district level and lead teacher educators.
DSD has developed, through a series of consultative dialogues with a variety of stakeholders, training materials to enhance the knowledge, skills repertoire and ethical disposition of teachers. DSD has undertaken a phased program of preparing requisite numbers of Lead Teacher Educators, District Teacher Educators and Heads of Schools to provide continuous professional development of PSTs. A network of DTSCs and CTSCs has been developed and staffed using clustering model. Detailed action plans have been developed and implemented in 2006 and 2007 to achieve the qualitative and quantitative targets of in-service training. A quality assurance wing has been developed at the DSD to monitor the training and support activities provided at DTSCs and CTSCs.
Detailed forms for feedback from providers and participants in the training programs have been developed and data thus generated is being used to refine the professional development strategies. The salient achievement of the last three years has been to structure the building blocks of CPD in all thirty five districts of the province under the overall leadership of DSD. The documentation strongly indicates that CPD is a provincial initiative, predominantly designed, developed and implemented by the apex body with little active role played by the District educational departments. Attempts have been made to • • • • • • • • • • v build consensus around the conceptual approach and its implementation, yet the district education departments have yet to fully own CPD. The collaboration between DSD and DEDs needs to be enhanced through mutual determination of training needs and strategies to meet them on a sustained basis. District Coordination Committees have been established which can be further empowered to ensure effective collaboration between DSD and DEDs. Educational forums at district, tehsil and local levels need to be energised through participatory meetings involving teachers, DTEs, Heads of Schools, parents and community leaders to identify training needs and design strategies to meet them. 15-17 KM cluster served by CTSCs needs to be reconsidered. Smaller radius clusters are needed to increase female teachers’ participation in training activities.
External Service Providers have been carefully selected to assist DSD in designing and implementation of training programs. NGOs and international consultants have been involved in developing detailed instructional materials and implementation methodologies. Such collaborative efforts need to be expanded. A new cadre of teacher educators with enhanced salary packages has been approved and implemented. All GCETs should be staffed by more experienced qualified members of this cadre. Those GCETs where DTSCs have been established are staffed by such personnel. To sustain the CPD efforts DEDs and DSD have to explore new ways of collaborative planning, design and implementation of CPD activities at the CPD centres.
GCETs have yet to develop the more demanding 4-year pre-service B. S. (Education) programs for primary school teachers and advanced level programmes for preparing Heads of Schools who can serve as instructional leaders in the CPD activities of their staff. The duration of 4-Week training program for LTEs needs to be extended. The content covered also needs to be augmented with more focus on mentoring strategies. A careful and critical review of DTEs training and mentoring activities is called for. It may be impractical to expect them to reach out to the number of teachers assigned to them per month. Documentation reports each month need to be computerized for accurate and wide sharing.
Duration of DTEs training also may be increased to focus on specific training and mentoring tasks. DSD and GCETs may develop detailed plans for this now to implement them in 2008 • • • • • • • • • vi • School Heads to be given additional training to act as instructional leaders for staff development. They need to be more intimately involved in on-site CPD activities in their schools. The GCETs staff may be involved in research projects to continuously refine the content and methods of training PSTs. Each DTSC situated on GCET campus may be further expanded to offer regular, sequential and supervised courses to the least qualified teachers to enable them to improve their credentials. BFM is a good initial training tool.
The participants in CPD training need to be encouraged to develop their own teachers’ portfolio of lesson plans, assessment activities and instructional methods. Such mini BFMs will personalize and sustain long term professional growth of teachers. Increased number of qualified primary school teachers need to be inducted as DTEs. Secondary school teachers who are selected as DTEs should have primary school teaching/administrative experience. Eligibility criteria for DTEs appointment may be designed to ensure this. • • • vii 1. Introduction This third party review and assessment report of the Continuous Professional Development of teachers conducted by the Directorate of Staff Development in Punjab has been written by Dr. Mahmood H. Butt and Mr. Fawwad Shams.
It is based on a desk review of the content of training modules for the LTE, DTE and PST training, foundational documents related to Continuous Professional Development framework, quality assurance records of measures adopted by DSD and site visits to assess the delivery aspects of all three stages of training of PSTs. Interviews were conducted with mentors, LTEs, DTEs, Heads of DTSCs, Principals of GCETs and Primary School Teachers. The report has identified the salient features of the Continuous Professional Development initiative of DSD and has recommended a series of changes and improvements for the next round of training. Given the immense task of improving the Knowledge, pedagogical skills and dispositions of the target population DSD has created the basic infrastructure of getting to target. These efforts which have been supported by a variety of stakeholders need to be continued and further refined.
The role of GCETs as providers of Pre-Service and In-Service teacher education needs to be elaborated and dovetailed with CPD initiative. While DSD’s role as apex organization responsible for professional development of teachers need support of the district and provincial policy makers, DSD should also continue to collaboratively work with DEDs and Provincial Educational authorities. Together they can strengthen the strategic framework of improving quality of primary school teachers envisaged in the CPD initiative. 2. Background The Punjab government with the active support of the World Bank and specialised agencies of the United Nations including UNESCO and UNICEF has been involved in a massive program of Education Sector Reforms. Punjab
Education Development Policy Credit (PEDPC) program has outlined a series of policy reforms to build capacity of the educational system to ensure availability of universal educational opportunity from pre-school to grade 10 and to improve the quality of educational opportunities to enhance the schools’ ability to retain and graduate those who come to their doors. PESRP is built around three main pillars. The first reform pillar deals with “Enhancing Fiscal Sustainability and Improving Fiduciary Environment”. The key objectives of this pillar include allocating adequate public expenditures that are commensurate with educational needs of the province and to strengthen each district’s financial capacity for meeting the needs of education service delivery in that district. Reform pillar II calls for “Increasing Equitable Access to Education and Improving Quality and Relevance of Education”.
The key objectives of pillar II includes increased participation in and retention rates of schools; encourage participation of private sector for contributing to access to equitable and quality education; develop an integrated strategy for improving quality of teachers through innovative and comprehensive programs of both pre-service and in-service training of teachers; and 1 Continuous Professional Development through a reorganised Directorate of Staff Development (DSD). PESRP pillar III calls for “Improving Public Education Sector Governance and Management”. The main objectives of pillar III include increasing each district’s managerial capacity for implementing and monitoring educational reforms; finalization of revised HR policy including establishments of a new teacher educator’s cadre and well defined career paths for teacher educators, head teachers and educational managers; and approval of revised roles and functions of PITE and GCETS under the overall control of DSD.
Another key goal of pillar III is to set up a system of monitoring and evaluation to measure the quality of educational outcomes in each district and rank all 35 districts using an updated performance monitoring index. 3. a. Brief History of DSD and its Evolution: Directorate of Staff Development (DSD) was established in 1959 as the Education Extension Centre but in 1994 was named as DSD. In 2002 DSD became part of the University of Education (UoE), but was made independent in 2004 when the Government of Punjab (GoP) reorganized the existing teacher training institutions, and was restructured with redefined roles and functions. Through a GoP notification, the DSD was later designated as the sole agency for coordinating activities that relate to teacher development, whether in the public or private sectors.
All the Elementary Colleges and PITE in Punjab were brought under the administrative control of DSD so as to better organize and coordinate professional development activities in the province, avoid any overlap/duplication, and ensure efficient utilization of resources. For the past two years, DSD is operating through a Rs. 2 billion annual budget covering all administrative and program costs related to professional development of teachers in the province; as such Punjab stands out amongst all provinces as demonstrating a lot of commitment towards quality education through provision of adequate resources. 3. b. Current Mandate and Organization of DSD
Since 2004 the Directorate of Staff Development has been reorganized as the “apex body” with the mandate to develop quality programs of teacher education across the public sector schools in the province through integrated and collaborative efforts with the DOE and DED. The vision of the Directorate is “to develop a knowledgeable, committed, motivated, competent and ethically sound cadre of educational personnel to deliver top quality education to the students in government schools of Punjab”. 2 DSD Provincial Institute of Teacher Education PITE (1) Government Colleges of Elementary Teachers GCETs (33) District Training & Support Centres DTSC (35) Cluster Training & Support Centres CTSCs (2290) Figure 1: The New DSD Structure as an Apex Body The Directorate has been given new functional roles and organizational responsibilities.
It is no longer a provider of in-service teacher education opportunities but is to provide leadership in integrated policy planning, research based and data driven decision making, continuous professional development of teachers and develop linkages with NGOs, private service providers, related departments, institutions, Universities and national/international development agencies. The following diagram describes the coordinating role of DSD with the main stakeholders for teacher education program development and implementation. 3 Teacher & Teacher Unions Universities & Institutions International Development Partners Parents & Students DSD Public
World Bank UNICEF GTZ CIDA JICA UNESCO NGOs Private Sector City School Salamat School System Ali Institute DSS Sector NCHD PITB PTB PEC Figure 2: DSD Coordination with Major Stakeholders for Programme Development and Implementation The reorganized DSD has been given the responsibility for overall integrated and holistic planning for teacher education in Punjab. The Provincial Institute of Teacher Education (PITE) and the thirty three Government Colleges for Elementary Teachers have been administratively assigned to the DSD control. 3. c. Role of Provincial Institute of Teacher Education (PITE) The Provincial Institute of Teacher Education (PITE) had been created to: i.
Develop and implement certificate and diploma courses of short duration for practicing teachers; Design training centres for preparing master trainers; Undertake and promote action research in teaching methods, lesson planning and on development and effective use of teaching, learning materials. As an integrated unit of DSD, PITE’s initial work lead to the development of the conceptual scheme of Continuous Professional Development of PSTs. ii. iii. 4 3. d. Government Colleges of Elementary Teachers Education and their functions The GCETS are to provide revised and up-graded pre-service teacher education programs to prepare more effective teachers of elementary schools.
DSD has been given the task of transforming the curricula, pedagogical practices and infrastructure of facilities of GCETs to transform them from old normal schools to modern collegiate level teacher education institutions. The GCETs are also to be integrated with the Continuous Professional Development Framework and provide in-service professional development support services to K-6 grade teachers through DTSCs that are set up on their campuses. GCETS are to actively participate in the District level training and support services to teachers in their jurisdiction. An additional task has been assigned to the GCETS that deals with developing action research projects, on issues related to teachers’ development, pedagogical strategies, school management, material development and improving student learning outcomes.
The faculty and administrators of GCETs are to be carefully selected, provided with resources and incentives to build capacity of district level educational authorities and institutions to constantly strive for equitable and quality educational opportunities. A new service cadre has been approved in the province by (Government of Punjab) for teacher educators under the leadership of DSD. 3. e. District Training and Support Centres (DTSCs) These centres have been established in all 35 districts. Twenty two (22) of these support centres have been housed in the GCETs and thirteen (13) have been placed in selected high schools in districts where GCETs do not exist.
Each DTSC has been staffed with at least four specialist Teacher Educators (TEs) responsible for coordination and implementation of CPD; monitoring, quality assurance and assessment; planning topical course/events and offering them in a sequential manner; and administration finance and logistics of district level support services envisaged in the CPD framework. Teacher Educators have been provided special pay, allowances and other incentives to actively play their lead roles. TE is a regular BS – 17 post in the provincial cadre. Each TE from the public sector cadre is being paid an incentive allowance of Rs. 6000/month in addition to the regular pay. TEs appointed on a contract basis are being paid an enhanced salary package.
All 140 District Teacher Educators (4 x 35) have been selected through an open, transparent selection process by DSD from a pool of 2700 applicants. They were tested in their specific areas: computer proficiency, quantitative ability, English Language and general knowledge. Upon their appointment the TEs are being given orientation workshops to prepare them to play their constructive role in district level capacity building. The following figure describes the administrative staff structure of each DTSC and the specific roles and responsibility of TEs. 5 DTSC Steering Committee (EDO, DMO, Head of DTCS & RPM) Head of DTSC TE Administration, Finance and Logistics (Management) TE Planning and Course/Events Organization TE
Coordination and Implementation TE Quality Assurance and M&E Supporting Staff Data Entry Operator (1) Drivers (2) Junior Clerk (1) Naib Qasid (1) Figure 3: Administrative Staff Structure of each DTSC In keeping with the objectives of decentralized governance of the CPD Framework (developed by DSD), District Training and Support Centres (DTSCs) have been established in every district. Roles and responsibilities of TEs in each DTSC are given below. DSD continues to review these roles periodically to update and align them with the new demands and requirements, as they arise, at the district level. i. Teacher Educator (Coordination and Implementation)
The main task of Teacher Educator (Coordination and Implementation) is to implement CPD activities within the overall parameters suggested by DSD and coordinate all field operations and activities relating to teacher professional development. The post holders are expected to spend 80% or more of their time in the field. 6 ii. Teacher Educator (Quality Assurance M & E) The main task of Teacher Educator (Quality Assurance and M & E) is to ensure that Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) defined by DSD are being observed. The post holders are expected to spend 80% or more of their time in the field. iii. Teacher Educator (Planning and Course/Events Organization)
The main responsibility of Teacher Educator (Planning and Course/Events Organization) is to prepare district level teacher development plans in close collaboration with district education authorities and execute training courses that are designed to be undertaken at DTSC. The post holders are expected to spend 20% or more of their time in the field. iv. Teacher Educator (Administration, Finance and Logistics Management) The main responsibility of Teacher Educator (Administration, Finance and Logistics Management) is to oversee day-to-day administration of DTSC and manage DTSC funds, supplies and equipment. In each district an advisory steering committee named as District Coordination Committee has been set up to guide the DTSC staff.
The aim of the committee is to coordinate collaboration of all stakeholders and to resolve issue of implementation at the district level. Site visit reports and interviews with – DTSC heads, indicated that while they had a basic understanding of the concept and design of the CPD, they were not very clear about the role DTSC was expected to play in the improvement of teachers’ skills in the district. They were also not clear about the role of District Education Department officials in the design and implementation of CPD activities in their area. Most of them asked for more active participation in the DSD planning team by the district educators like EDOs, DMOs and DTEs. Another concern expressed by DTSC staff related to the length and duration of DTEs training.
DSD officials are also aware of this and are planning additional 6-months training for DTEs in 2008-09. The District Steering Committees consisting of EDO, DMO, DTEs, RPMs and DSD need to be more actively involved in determining the district needs and designing appropriate activities to meet them within the overall CPD parameters. 4. District Education Department (DED) and Implementation of CPD A key link in the governance and administrative structure of education since the devolution plan’s implementation has been the development of DEDs and their specific 7 roles in implementation and taking ownership of district teacher development plans prepared in collaboration with DSD.
The DEDs are to collaboratively do cluster mapping with DSD and assign appropriate sites in the district for the establishment of cluster centres and attach primary schools with their cluster centres for effective support services to primary school teachers. The DED is to select and identify DTEs, Master trainers and Trainers of Teachers (ToTs) in accordance with criteria and procedures identified by DSD. The close collaboration between DSD and DED is essential to ensure success of the CPD model of teacher training and support. The collaboration needs to be not just in implementation of CPD activities designed by DSD but in designing and constant refinement of strategies of professional growth and development.
The DEDs and their lead staff including DEOs, DDEOs and AEOs need to become real partners in planning and programming of CPD activities at the DTSC and CTSC levels otherwise the initiatives planned by DSD may not be implemented whole-heartedly. At the district education department level a strong feeling of lack of close collaboration with DSD was apparent. The perception is quite strong that CPD is a provincial initiative and DED has very little role in its actual design and delivery. EDOs and DMOs need to be provided a clear view of their professional role in the qualitative improvement of teachers in their district. DSD needs to motivate DED officials through meaningful involvement in overall design, implementation and improvement of CPD framework. 5. Punjab Teacher Education Policy Making and Implementation
To fully comprehend the intricacies of Punjab Teacher Education Policy Making and Implementation of the CPD initiative it is important to outline the duties and functions of key teacher educators and policy makers in the province. During the last five years teacher education policy making and implementation has undergone significant changes in the Punjab. PESRP initiatives have outlined and clearly defined roles and responsibilities of three key decisions makers of teacher educational policy. These include the provincial Department of Education, Directorate of Staff Development and District Departments of Education. Provincial Department of Education (DOE) Directorate of Staff Development (DSD)
District Education Department (DED) 8 The following table provides clearly defined roles and responsibilities of the key players in the transformation of teacher education in the province: 1. Institution DoE • Roles and Responsibilities To provide leadership to drive overall reform in education including teacher education so as to enhance the quality of learning in public schools. It will initiate timely and appropriately sequenced actions for establishing coordination mechanism (Punjab Teacher Development forum); Teacher Standards and Appraisal System; Accreditation and Licensing; revise career progression system (pay and grade) among others.
To create required structures and processes required for setting up a system of teacher professional development as outlined above To ensure coordination and connect amongst the provincial level institutions for a coordinated and unified approach to educational management and education reform To drive administrative leadership for effective implementation of CPD activities To make policy decisions concerning teacher incentive, monitoring and accountability To ensure that District Governments facilitate, own, support and monitor the implementation of CPD programs within their respective districts To ensure that teacher development programs are adequately funded To ensure that data requirements of DSD are met through the EMIS/PMIU system.
To provide direction for the future vision and master plan for teacher development for the Province as a whole To identify the professional development needs of public school teachers in Punjab To develop and organize continuous professional development programs in order to meet the needs of teachers To identify and develop a resource pool of key trainers, master trainers and district teacher educators/mentors in each district To develop the professional capacity of educational management staff at the district level so that they are able to support teachers, plan and implement educational change and monitor and evaluate schools for effectiveness To develop linkages between providers of pre-service and in-service teacher education to ensure that teachers receive high quality of education, training and follow-up support prior to joining the teaching profession and throughout their professional career To co-ordinate with the Department of Education to establish and consolidate mechanisms and procedures for incentives and accountability, monitoring and evaluation of education staff, data collection and analysis, etc. To undertake research studies on issues related to teacher development, design and undertake impact studies, surveys etc.
To establish mechanisms and processes for quality assurance of all programs – both in-service and pre-service To advise DoE/DSD in matters relating to teacher development To provide a mechanism for all partners and stakeholders for regular interaction and sharing of experiences To develop and undertake joint research and development activities, etc. • • • • • • • 2. DSD • • • • • • • • • 3. PTEF • • • 9 4. PITE • • • • • 5. District Education Department • • • • • • • • • • • To develop and implement certificate and diploma courses of short duration (ranging from two weeks to 9 months) at the Provincial level in a number of areas To develop and deliver Training of Trainer courses in a number of areas To develop and implement distance-based certificate and advance courses in the above areas To develop distance-based training modules and other innovative materials and modules To undertake action research on teaching methods, lesson plans, and teaching learning materials.
To take ownership of the District Teacher Development Plans in collaboration with DSD To effectively implement Teacher Development Plans in their respective districts To undertake cluster mapping activities and identify appropriate high or higher secondary schools for establishment of the cluster centre To assign or attach primary schools to their respective cluster centres as per DSD guidelines To identify teachers to receive professional support within the parameters set by the DSD To make teachers available for training and provide access to needed physical facilities, materials and data To identify and select District Teacher Educators, Master Trainers, ToTs among others, in accordance with the criteria and procedure set by the DSD To coordinate activities of DEOs, DDEOs and AEOs during the exercise of establishing cluster centres and selection of DTEs in the district To supply educational data to DSD required for planning and programming of CPD activities To monitor the implementation of CPD activities at the district and cluster levels To enforce incentives and accountability measures in accordance with the Government rules and regulations. To offer pre-service teacher education courses To house DTSC To collaborate with DTSC and district educational authorities in matters of planning, implementing, coordinating and monitoring the CPD activities To support the TEs in actually designing and undertaking training courses To undertake action research on a number of issues related to teacher development, pedagogy, school management, learning, etc.
To work with District Education Department and assist DSD in undertaking Training Needs Analysis (TNA) of secondary and higher secondary teachers and district education personnel To develop Teacher Development Plans in collaboration with DSD and other district stakeholders To prepare district action plans for various CPD activities in collaboration with different stakeholders To organize in-service training courses for elementary, secondary and higher secondary teachers and trainers at the district level and below To provide professional support to elementary, secondary and higher secondary teachers To ensure the quality of training courses in the district and clusters through monitoring, evaluation, and quality assurance. 6. GCETs • • • • • 6. DTSC • • • • • • 10 7. DTEF • • • • 8. CTSC • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9. Cluster Centre School 9. Primary School
To coordinate CPD activities at the district level for implementation To provide a platform to the district level partners and stakeholders for continued interaction, consultation and sharing To advise District Governments in matters relating to teacher development To design and undertake joint research and development activities at the district level to enhance the quality of teaching and learning in schools To assist DSD and DTSC in undertaking TNAs of PSTs and ESTs To implement in-service training courses, workshops, and a host of other teacher development activities within the CPD framework To provide on-going and on-site follow-up, mentoring and pedagogical support to PSTs To provide feedback and data to DTSCs and DSD. To provide facilities (one room, toilet, and furniture) for smooth functioning of the Cluster Centre To facilitate smooth implementation of CPD activities such as INSET, teacher follow-up, mentoring, peer coaching, inter and intra school visits of teachers, distribution of materials, etc. To become a lead school in matters of effective teaching and learning and share best practices with schools within the cluster To provide a communication link between DSD and schools within the cluster To manage funds allocated for cluster level activities.
To participate in CPD activities To share available resources with other schools To facilitate follow-up, classroom visits and mentoring by DTEs To create environment for peer support and coaching To cooperate with other schools in the cluster. To monitor teacher attendance To mobilize local resources and support for school development To create conditions for effective teaching and learning in schools To provide a link between the school and the local community. 10. School Council • • • • 6. Continuous Professional Development Framework (CPDF) During 2006 – 2007 DSD has taken a lead to develop a conceptual framework for CPD of primary school teachers based on a concept of clustering. The conceptual basis of CPD is that quality of student learning outcomes is contingent upon quality of teachers and their ability to instruct, inform and inspire their students.
Leading educational thinkers are unanimous in recognizing that teacher quality is a powerful predictor of student performance. An inspiring teacher can encourage the students to acquire, comprehend, apply, assess, evaluate knowledge and internalize it as a powerful tool for further action. 6. a. Target Population for CPD To achieve the qualitative and quantitative goals of PESRP the DSD has to provide continuous professional development programs to large numbers of teachers already serving in the province. These target groups include Primary School Teachers 11 (143599), Elementary School Teachers (66671) Secondary School Teachers (83440), Higher Secondary School Teachers (11096), Head Teachers/ Designates (64000) and District Education Staff (1521).
The target population not only includes large numbers of teachers who need to be provided sequential CPD activities but also includes other layers of complexity including varying levels of pre-service preparation. Almost half of the primary school teachers who have a 10th grade education and 2 – 3 years pedagogical training leading to PTC or CT have been labelled as “least qualified teachers”. These LQTs are in direct need of Continuous Professional Development. Pre service In-service Master Trainer/ Expertise Directorate of Staff Development (DSD) 64000 Head Teachers (HT) 11096 /83440 33 Government Colleges for Elementary Teachers (GCETs) High School/ Secondary School (HS/SS) 66671 Elementary School Teacher (EST) 143599 Primary School Teacher (PST) Figure 4: Target Population
To make them effective PSTs a uniform, standardized program of CPD is needed that covers the key pre-requisites of effective teaching including a sound knowledge-base covering both general knowledge and subject area expertise, repertoire of teaching skills and classroom management skills, knowledge of learners and their characteristics, and necessary disposition to create a safe learning environment that is conducive to student learning. 12 6. b. Diagram for CPD Framework The following diagram features the core components of the CPD framework for primary school teachers developed by DSD. It includes both DSD related delivery components and mechanisms and policy related components involving DSD, DOE and DED. CPD Framework Improved Student Teacher as a Self-Learning and Accountable Professional Pay/Grade Structure Certification and Licensing PD Courses DG Staff DSD HTs (65000) SST/HSTs (11096+83440) DTSC
Accreditation Awards Assessment and PER Teacher Standards Degree Courses ESTs (66671) CTSC PSTs (143599) Education /Training Incentives and Accountability DoE DSD/PITE /GCET DG QA Follow-up & Support t Mentoring Follow-up Key Stakeholders/Non-Public Providers Coordinated Approach Materials Distance Education Other Forms of Support Figure 5: CPD Framework and its constituent core components The DSD-related components refer to all pedagogical processes and activities designed to enhance the knowledge, skills and attitudes of teachers and support them continuously on-the-job. These include professional courses, academic degree courses, face to face mentoring, peer coaching, and teacher support materials.
DSD has focused on Quality Assurance in all its structures, mechanisms, processes and policies that are designed to recruit, organize, monitor, appraise and motivate teachers so that an enabling environment is created for increased performance and accountability of teachers. 13 A carefully thought out phased program to implement the CPD for PSTs has been developed by DSD. This includes detailed development of training materials using the research-based best practices; pilot testing of the instructional materials and their finalization prior to actual use at DTSCS and CTSCs. These materials include Basic Foundation Module (BFM) consisting of selected topics in six school subjects taught in primary schools and related pedagogical skills.
Detailed content area modules for each subject have been developed and pilot tested in six districts of Lahore, Kasur, Faisalabad, Gujrat, Rajanpur and Rahim Yar Khan. Due to the huge numbers of PSTS to be covered by the in service education and support program all thirty five districts have been divided into three phases. Phase – I (12 Districts) Kasur Okara Attock Gujrat Faisalabad Rajanpur Mianwali Sargodha Sheikhupura Muzaffargarh Rahim Yar Khan Mandi Bahauddin Phase – II (13 Districts) Jehlum Lahore Layyah Multan Narowal Khushab Sahiwal Rawalpindi Pak Pattan Gujranwala Khanewal Bahawalpur Nankana Sahib Phase – III (10 Districts) Chakwal Sialkot Bhakkar Jhang Toba Tek Sing Vehari Lodhran Bahawalnagar D. G. Khan Hafizabad
In the first phase (September 4 – October 7, 2006) 65 LTE from 12 districts listed above were selected and trained at DSD with active support from a private service provider (City School). These 65 trained LTEs provided follow up training to 513 DTEs already trained at DSD in December 2005 – January 2006. In addition they trained 891 DTEs during December 2006 at DTSCs of their respective districts. The 1404 DTEs thus trained have been assigned the task of providing training to 60,000 plus PSTs at Cluster Training and Support Centers (CTSCs). In the 2nd phase 76 LTEs from 13 districts have been undergoing training at DSD in December 2006. These LTEs trained DTEs during January – February 2007 in their districts in summer 2007.
The national consultant for this project visited a selected number of these training sites and sessions and his field reports are included in this report. The third phase covering ten districts is underway. It will complete 4 week training of LTEs in all 35 districts. 14 6. c. Training of Lead Teacher Educators (LTEs) To implement CPD a group of 220 Lead Teacher Educators was prepared in three phases in 2006-2007. The target was to prepare a core group of master trainers (6 in each district) who were to train and mentor District Teacher Educators (DTEs) who in turn were expected to train, mentor and coordinate the training and support activities of all the PSTs in their respective districts.
The LTEs intensive training over 4 weeks (178 hours) covered class room instructions (142 hours) regarding the DSD vision, Basic Foundation Module (BFM) effective teaching and learning strategies at the Primary School level; after hours technical sessions and library study (22 hours) and pre-training reading preparation (14 hours). The training was conducted by the City School Staff who were selected as the External Service Provider after a careful search. The LTE training covered five main modules including: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mentors as change agents Learning at Primary School Level Effective Teaching and Learning strategies Basic Foundation Module and its key concepts and Training of DTEs.
The LTEs were given opportunities to use computer and library resources to ensure enhanced and meaningful participation in class room instructional activities. LTEs were selected from the subject matter specialists serving at secondary, higher secondary schools and GCETs in each district. After their intensive training they serve as part-time mentors of DTEs as certified Lead educators. An honorarium of Rs. 4000 per month has been recommended by DSD to be paid to LTEs in additions to their regular salaries. LTEs are expected to have subject matter expertise in English, Science and Mathematics and Social Sciences. The external service provider also assisted DSD in overall design and implementation of the 4 weeks intensive training.
They developed the detailed training guide, modules and needed supplementary materials in line with the CPD framework and vision of DSD. The quality assurance wing of DSD monitored the activities of the external service provider and devised in depth feedback forms to solicit opinions of the stakeholders about the various aspects of training provided and methodologies used. The quality assurance wing developed and used a comprehensive feedback instrument to determine the quality of training provided and results achieved. Trainees used selfassessment proforma. These follow up feedback forms pointed out the salient strengths and limitations of the training activities.
The participants were generally satisfied with the academic content covered in the modules, diverse methods of communication used, attention to time on task and supportive and motivating roles of the trainers. The shortcomings identified included poor participation of the participants, less willingness to 15 discuss and be constructively critical of each others performance, and poor time management both by the participants and their mentors. Quite a few participants needed more individual help with utilization of computers and library study materials. Some of the theoretical content covered in the training modules needed more elaboration. The quality assurance wing of DSD developed detailed analytical reports of the three batches of LTE training. 6. d. Clustered Teacher Support Centres (CTSC)
While these phased activities were being undertaken DSD has also developed in each district clusters of support centres (CTSC). Key features of clustering include: • • • • Making a cohesive cluster of 25 – 30 primary schools located within a 15 – 17 Km radius, Establish a CTSC in a high school or Higher Secondary School for CPD activities, Equip each CTSC with necessary physical, instructional and logistical resources, In general two DTEs are deployed at each CTSC to initiate, coordinate and facilitate CPD activities for PSTs in each CTSC. It is intimated that a total of 2290 CTSCS are needed in all thirty five districts, number varying in each district depending on the number of schools and teachers to be served.
A total of 4580 DTEs will need to be trained to implement the CPD program for all PSTs in the first go around. The whole CPD program is based on the assumption that teachers must be supported on a continuous basis using multiple strategies to enhance their knowledge-base and skills repertoires. Teacher’s needs at the local level are to be the engine driving the CPD activities. Eventually after acquisition of advanced level of competencies PSTs are expected to act as self learning professionals. Groups of PSTs have to take a leadership role in sustaining CTSCs. The CPD through CTSC is to bring teacher training and support closer to the classroom.
While main mentoring is to be provided by DTEs, PSTs are to be provided training opportunities under the mentoring support of their head teachers in their own schools also. CTSC are designed to provide enhanced opportunities of CPD to female teachers due to shorter travel time needed to visit cluster centres. Finally clustering is deemed to be a cost-effective mechanism where teachers can visit the CTSCs in the afternoons and weekends while travelling no more than 15 – 17 Kms. • • • • 6. e. District Teacher Educators (DTEs) Another key player in the implementation of the CPD program for primary school teachers has been identified as the District Teacher Educator. To prepare the DTEs for actively conducting training, mentoring, support and coordinating activities a Guide Book has been developed.
Its contents include descriptions of a prototypical Cluster Training 16 and Support Centre (CTSC), job description, selection criteria and qualifications and specific responsibilities of DTEs. The text provides guidelines and helpful hints to facilitate the process of mentoring and teacher support both at CTSCs and on site in primary schools. The Guide also includes six detailed follow up forms to document the mentoring and support activities undertaken by the DTE on a monthly basis. Each DTE is to document a monthly work plan and progress report. A monthly report in also to be provided to the head of DTSC regarding the school visits undertaken for mentoring PSTs by the DTEs.
The overall responsibilities of DTEs as outlined in the Guide Book include promoting quality of student learning through on-site and on-going professional training and support of PSTs. The DTES are to collaborate with heads of CTSCs in designing and implementing training activities in the cluster centres and coordinate with heads of schools within each cluster to identify the training needs specific to their school staff and inform them about the scheduled mentoring and training activities. Two main critical comments about the DTE Guide Book relate to selection criteria and qualifications of DTEs and the required documentation and reports. If DTEs are to be selected from secondary or higher secondary school with a minimum of five years of teaching experience and BA, B.
Ed degree chances are that relatively a small number will have relevant primary school teaching experience. In a status conscious culture PSTs are accorded lowest salaries, esteem and authority in the educational ladder. DTEs training should emphasize that PSTs establish the foundation on which the rest of the educational edifice is to be built hence mentoring ought to be motivating and uplifting. DTE must have significant teaching experience at the primary School level. The documentation and reporting required of the DTEs monthly activities while necessary need to be simplified. Support staff ought to be provided to DTEs to provide reliable and accurate data.
It can become a daunting task without such support. 6. f. Basic Foundation Module for PSTs (BFM) A key document has been prepared for the use of LTEs and DTEs to train primary school teachers according to the CPD framework. It was finalized in 2006. This is known as Basic Foundation Module (BFM). This document has been developed through a series of workshops and consultative dialogues with a variety of stakeholders including officials of District Education departments, external services providers, NGOs, national and international experts, heads of District Training and Support Centres (DTSCs), principals of GCETs and consultants provided by international donor agencies.
BFM covers key salient topics in six core subject areas taught at the primary school level in the context of innovative pedagogical skills that need to be developed among all PSTs. The content of BFM has been carefully selected in light of training need assessments for professional development of teachers done by PITE and IER, Lahore. A material development committee of experts developed the various drafts of BFM in light of training needs of teachers. Another committee was developed to review and refine the BFM. These two committees continued to work on the document throughout 2005 and 2006. Pilot testing of BFM was done in two phases. In the first phase the document was tested for content, format and pedagogical skills using 400 DTEs and 7000 teachers. Lesson plans included 17 n the BFM were revised and standardized in light of feedback received from those who participated in phase1. In the 2nd phase BFM content was further tested in six selected districts of Punjab. The experts from PITE, NGOs, and external service provider carefully assessed the content of BFM to determine its applicability and effectiveness to promote classroom learning. A well delineated system to gather, analyze and use reliable and credible pilot testing data was developed to further refine the content included in the BFM. The final document has how been used at DTSCs throughout the province. Model lesson plans in each of the six core subjects and related skills repertoire have been standardized.
The CPD activities at the district and school levels are designed to cultivate in all PSTs the needed pedagogical skills. The constructivist model of planning and implementing lessons is conducive to developing the critical and reflective thinking abilities of the students. BFM provides variety of teaching moments to teachers to take their students beyond the information given in the lesson. Questioning strategies, roleplay, small and large group activities and homework are incorporated in the BFM to foster intelligent problem solving skills rather than mere rote learning. Each lesson ends with salient review questions. It is important that BFM be used as a teaching and learning model document.
DTSCs should not merely teach the content included in the BFM but should encourage the participants to develop their own teaching portfolios in which they may include lesson plans that were implemented successfully by them, teacher-made instructional aids, teacher-made assessment tests and classroom management plans. A well developed mini BFM (teacher’s portfolio) will enable the teachers to enrich their classroom with extra curricular materials. Head teachers in each school may encourage their PSTs to develop their own mini BFMs and share them with their colleagues at their CTSCs. Such teacher made BFMs will increase PSTs skills of curriculum development also. 7. a. The CPD Framework and Implementation Review Report
The traditional professional development models for teachers prevailing in Pakistan comprise shorter duration on-off workshops or refresher courses that would offer teachers new information on a particular aspect of their work. A lot of educational research suggests that these on-off programs without any proper follow up/support do not contribute to teachers’ development, let alone lead to quality learning of children. Teacher professional development is most effective when it is long-term, school-based and collaborative with all teachers, heads and education managers, focusing upon student learning outcomes and curriculum. The CPD framework that the DSD has proposed/developed is based on the premise that eacher training and support is necessary but not sufficient for creating conditions for effective teaching in schools. While training and support will provide the necessary pedagogical knowledge and skills required to teach, a number of institutional, managerial, and financial resources create the enabling environment under which teachers can use the pedagogical knowledge and skills they acquire through training. There are two fundamental principles underpinning the CPD framework: 1. decentralized management structure 2. coordination and partnership 18 DSD envisages that eventually the districts will prepare and implement their own teacher development plans within the overall framework and support provided by the DSD.
Much of the CPD related activities take place at the district and cluster level, therefore, for the initial stages DSD will have to provide guidance to the provincial education department for capacitating the district governments, who at the moment do not have the necessary skills and resources to take a lead in the professional development of their teachers. DSD has proposed a decentralized management structure under the CPD framework that is in line with the devolved local government structure. Under the CPD decentralized structure in each district a District Training and Support Center (DTSC) is established with the mandate to plan, facilitate, coordinate and implement inservice training and professional development activities for district teachers.
The DTSCs are housed in existing Elementary Colleges (or in high/higher secondary schools if there is no Elementary College present), and the provincial education department has already issued a notification concerning the establishment of DTSCs. At present the DTSCs are headed by the existing principal of Elementary College and/or high/higher secondary school. Until the time of writing this report the TEs were being recruited by the DSD for appointment in DTSCs. At the next level the CPD framework has established Cluster Training and Support Centers (CTSC) under which a centrally located high/higher secondary school is identified to function as the CTSC from where teacher support activities are implemented, coordinated and facilitated. Each cluster on average will consist of 25-30 primary schools located within a radius of 15-16 kilometers from the CTSC.
As per approved CPD framework, each CTSC will be staffed by a maximum of two district teacher educators (DTE) who have already been recruited and trained and have already implemented an initial training cycle under the CPD. The notion of clustering brings teacher support and training close to classrooms and to the schools’ doorsteps, and is also economical both in terms of time and resources in that teachers do not have to travel long distances and do not have to be paid huge amounts of per diem. A genuine effort for implementation of CPD calls for strong coordination and collaboration between three key institutions within the education sector of Punjab: Provincial Department of Education (DoE), DSD and District Education Department (DED).
If the three institutions are not guided by the same vision and do not work in harmony, it will not be possible to effectively implement the CPD plan and improve teachers’ professional competence. The ownership and support of DoE and DED is crucial to the success of CPD. Secondly, it is important to bring together all other relevant stakeholders on a single platform from where all plans and programs for teacher professional development in Punjab generate. All international and local organizations therefore, should plan their work for teacher professional development in consultation with the three key institutions mentioned earlier for an effective coordination and program design/delivery. 19 7. b. Implementation Review Report 7. b. i. DTEs Training
DSD has divided the 35 districts of Punjab into three regions; northern, central, and southern with an almost even distribution of districts between the three regions. The districts visited to observe DTEs training included Jhang, Tobatek Singh, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Pakpattan, Sahiwal, Lahore and Faisalabad which is one of the twelve districts where DTEs were trained in an earlier phase. DTEs were selected in all the districts using a uniform level/scale (SST, grade 17 – Conceptual Framework, page 16), qualifications (minimum B. A/B. Ed), experience (minimum 5 years teaching, preferably at the primary level) and age criteria (below 45 years).
Interviews were held for all the DTEs in respective districts and the panel comprised EDO education, district monitoring officer (DMO), district training and support centers (DTSC) head and DSD regional program manager (RPM). Altogether, in the seven districts (excluding Faisalabad) 758 DTEs (145 females) were trained as opposed to the actual/intended 807. The breakdown district wise is as follows: District Anticipated DTEs Actual Present Female Training day when visit was made 2 2 4 4 7 7 8 Jhang Tobatek Singh Pakpattan Sahiwal Gujranwala* Sialkot* Lahore TOTAL Faisalabad** 204 87 58 88 130 161 79 807 120 192 76 56 88 127 146 73 758 110 51 18 5 13 15 39 4 145 20 Attendance to be seen in view of heavy rains as visits were made to these districts **DTEs trained in phase 1; visit was made to assess the impact of CPD on schools/teachers A quick review of the numbers indicates an overall attendance rate (based on spot check on the day of the visit) of 94%, which is significantly high. However, female participation rate is extremely low at only 19% (145 out of 758) of the total DTEs being 20 trained. According to officials including the DTSC heads, this low participation is largely due to issues around mobility of DTEs that in the absence of any transport for females is impossible, hence poor participation in the program.
Training was provided by lead teacher educators (LTE) in all the districts at the DTSCs located in Government Colleges for Elementary Teachers (GCET) in six out of seven districts (DTSC located in a high school in Pakpattan where there is no GCET). All the LTEs were trained earlier by private groups (NGOs, City Schools) through a four week program focusing upon areas around content and methodology as part of a basic foundations module (BFM). DTEs were divided into groups at each location, and each group was trained/facilitated by two LTEs. Training schedule was provided to the LTEs earlier in a one-day orientation; however, it mismatched with the schedule provided to the DTEs in the BFM and that did cause some confusion amongst some LTEs at least in a couple of districts but no major issue was created as both schedules covered all topics, though in different order.
All DTEs were provided copies of the BFM and the LTEs had the BFM as well as other training material/aids (CDs, transparencies, handouts) to supplement the BFM. DTEs were divided into groups and made to sit as such in small circles at almost all locations. Training venues/rooms were by and large well lit, airy and spacious and additional rooms were made available in some locations for doing activity work. LTEs were found to be fairly competent and skilled in the task of training with reference to methodology and their own command over subject matter; they used various interactive approaches like questioning, open discussion, presentations, role play and group work that kept the training sessions lively and interesting and the DTEs keenly involved in the learning process.
No lecture method was observed at any location and LTEs used activities and teaching/learning aids such as multimedia (two locations), overhead projectors (multiple locations), charts (all locations) and even classroom floor in one case (Sialkot) to facilitate the training. Training methodology focused equally upon teaching of content and methodology; the participants worked on content areas/concept clarity and at the same time on methodology of delivering the same to PSTs. DTEs also demonstrated a high level of interaction/participation through questioning, group discussions and presentations/role play; they prepared lesson plans as per required under the BFM and demonstrated good understanding of lesson plan preparation techniques during their presentations.
DTEs role as mentors/coordinators was also occasionally touched upon by LTEs and was to follow in more detail on days 10-12, but it would definitely require a very thorough grounding of the concept of mentoring as well as issues around logistics during implementation, and the DTEs visibly looked eager to discover more about their new role as mentors. While the DTEs were provided with a 6-day training schedule of the PSTs that they are to do from August 20-25, equally useful would have been a template for a mentoring plan/schedule that each DTE could use to develop his/her plan. In discussions held with 6 DTEs in Faisalabad who were trained in a previous phase and had already gone to the field to train/mentor PSTs, it was visible that they had issues/concerns about the implementation of CPD vis-a-vis logistics and support (cluster size, mobility, allowances, coordination with DTSC/DSD) as well as their future service in the education department.
According to information provided by them, some of the clusters were as large as 40 kilometers, and in the absence of any 21 transport there was no way they would be able to reach out to schools/teachers on an ongoing basis. Discussions were held with heads of DTSCs (all males) in all the eight districts (including Faisalabad), seven of them working as principals of GCETs and the one in Pakpattan as headmaster of the high school where DTSC was located. None of the DTSC heads was very clear about the role of DTSC within the district and their own role as head of the DTSC except that they had the drawing & disbursement powers over the DTSC budget.
All demonstrated very basic understanding of the concept of professional development and mostly referred to it as training or refresher courses; while they did mention coordination of DTSC with cluster training and support centers (CTSC), they were not clear what this coordination meant or how would it be done despite undergoing some orientation activities offered by the DSD. They were also not clear about involvement of the district education department for implementation of the CPD. DTSCs and CTSCs have a crucial role to play in the success of the CPD model and as such their heads are going to be instrumental in the whole process. DTSC heads shared some concerns about the CPD model, which are as follows: • • • • • • • • • •
DTSC heads should be part of the DSD planning team for CPD and other programs to be implemented in their respective districts Between the DTSC head, 4 teacher educators (TEs that are to be appointed at the DTSC) and the CTSC head, this is an insufficient structure to monitor hundreds of DTEs within the district; for utilizing existing government infrastructure such as AEOs/LCs, they need to be trained on CPD philosophy and be mandated through a proper job description for the task of monitoring CTSCs in their present form are far and scattered and not a practical approach to reach out to PSTs; their distances must be reduced further for a more practical outreach, specially in rural areas; evidence from other programs such as the USAID/ESRA and PTMP Baluchistan also suggest smaller distance clusters Mobility of females is an issue; hence their small numbers as DTEs Role of LTEs must increase to include provision of professional support for DTEs on an ongoing basis LTEs and DTEs are at the same service level, they should have been at different levels EDO and DMO feel left out of the whole process and are disinterested; they should be made part of the CPD planning framework for their respective districts and be made responsible for effective implementation and monitoring It would be good to get fresh individuals from the market and train as DTEs rather than those from within the system who are used to working in a certain way that may not be desirable for the CPD Duration of DTEs training should have been longer; CPD trainings are like a pyramid where LTEs get the longest training followed by DTEs followed by teachers Teachers are not motivated and will not change their practices even after the training 22 • Amount prov