A bound (nonword) morpheme that changees the meaning or function of a root/stem to which it is attached.




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as the prefex ad- and suffix -ing in adjoining.

Alphabetic Principle
The assuption underlying alphabetic writing systems that each speech sound or phoneme of a language should have its own distinctive graphic representation, which is a letter or group of letters of the alphabet.




/a/ as in cat

/sh/ as in shut

Analytic Phonics
A whole-to-part approach to word study in which the student is first taught a number of sight words and then relevant phonic generalizations, which are subsequently applied to other words; deductive phonics.




pat, pen, pig

then realizing all have the same “p” sound

Auditory Blending
The ability to fuse discrete phonemes into recognizable spoken words.




Putting /d/ /i/ /d/ together to get did.

Auditory Discrimination
The ability to hear phonetic likeness and differences in phonemes and words and to distunguish among the sounds.




/s/ can also sound like /z/


/ch/ sounds different than /c/

Auditory Processing
The full range of mental acticity involved in reacting to auditory stimuli, especially sounds, and in considering their meanings in relation to past experience and to their future use.




Remember the video with Liam:

“Touch the ball, mat, mirror, door”

The ability to recognize a word (or series of words) in text effortlessly and rapidly.


Example:  Reading fluently, like an adult would.

Basal Reading Program
A collection of student texts/workbooks, teacher’s manuals, and supplemental materials used for development of reading/language arts and sometimes writing instruction, used chiefly in the elementary/middle school grades.




Dick and Jane, any Houghton-Mifflin, etc.

To combine the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word; to sound out; the instance of 2+ consonants appearing together in a word but each of the consonant sounds remaining an independent phoneme/you can hear each letter’s sound.




/b/ + /l/ = /bl/

The essence and ultimate purpose of reading, comprehension is the ability to gain meaning from what is read.  The hierarchy of comprehension skills ranges from concrete to abstract, and it includes levels such as literal/inferential/analytical/evaluative. The various levels of comprehension skills are also referred to as lower-order + higher-oder skills.
Concepts of Print
Familiarity with print conventions; an important predictor of learning to read.




Reading L to R, top to bottom

reading right-side up; use of space to denote words

idea that print represents words; punctuation


1. A speech sound made by partial or complete closure of part of the voal tract, which obstructs air flow and causes audible friction in varying amounts

2. Letters of the aphabet that are not vowels.




b, c, d, f ,g h

Context Clue
Info from the immediate textual setting that helps ID a word/word group, as by recognizing words, phrases, sentence illustrations, syntax, typography, etc.






Cueing System
A cueing system can include any of the various sources of info that might aid ID of a word unrecognized at first glance.  These are cues that every good reader uses to decode words in the contect of the text to help predict or guess.  The 3 main cueing systems are:

*Semantics (meaning) Does that word make sense?

*Sytax (sytactical/structural) Does that word sound right in the sentence, grammatically?

*Grapho-phonemic (visual or letter-sound info)  Sound that word out!  read sat instead of sitting

Curriculum-Based Assessment
The appraisal of student progress by using materials and procedures directly from the curriculum taught.




To assess reading, listen as student reads in textbook.  Do this frequently to assess benchmarks reached.

Decodable Text


A type of text used in beginning reading instruction, often from Little Books, for the purpose of fluency practice.  This text can be independently decoded/sounded out ased on what the student knows. Text contains many repititions of sounds/phonic elements that sutdents ahve already been taught, along with a limited # of high-frequency words.




Hop on Pop

The cat sat on a rat.

****CA loves these types of books! but not good as teaching tool.

To analyze spoken or graphic symbols of a familiar language in order to ascertain their inteneded meaning.  NOTE: To learn to read, one must learn the conventional code in which something is written in order to decode the written message.  In reading practice, the term is used primarily to refer to word ID rather than to ID higher units of meaning.




sound it out!

A series of strategies used selectively by readers to recognize and read written words.  The reader locates cues in a word that reveals enough about it to help in pronouncing it and attaching meaning to it.




letter-sound correspondences

The act, process, or result of ID-ing the specific nature of a disorder or diability through observation and examination.  NOTE:  Technically, diganosis means only the ID and labeling of a disorder.  AS the term is used in education, however, it often includes the planning of instruction and an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the student.
Diagnostic Testing
The use of the results of student performance on current tasks to plan future learning activities; instruction in which diagnosis and instruction are fused into a single ongoing process.



Differentiating for deaf student

A combo of two letters, either consonants or vowels, representing a single speech sound.


Consonant digraphs in English:


/th/ /sh/ /ch/ /wh/ /ph/ /ck/ /tch/


Some vowel digraphs:


/ai/ /au/

A sound formed by the combo of two vowels in a single syllable, in which the sound begins as one vowel and moves toward another (as in coin, loud, and side)  .  A vowel dipthong is represented by 2+ vowels together.


/eye/ as in buy

boy and bough




A medical term for a developmental reading disability, which is presumably congential and often hereditary; may vary in degree from mild-severe.  NOTE: Dysleia (word blindness) occurs in persons who have adequate vision, hearing, intelligence, and gen’l language function.; People with dyslexia freq’ly have difficulty in spelling/acquiring a second language, suggesting that it is part of a brad type of language disability.  Difficulties with phonology are typical in most cases.
Emergent Literacy
The beginning stage of the development of the association of print with meaning that starts early in a child’s life and continues until he/she reaches the stage of conventional reading/writing; “the reading and writing concepts and behaviors of young children that precede and develop into conventional literacy.”
To change a message into, as encode oral language into writing, encode an idea into words, or encode physical law into mathematical symbols.





four plus five = 4 + 5

The study of the history of words.
Explicit Instruction
The intentional design and delivery of info by the teacher to the students.; It begins with

1) the teacher modeling the skill or strategy

2) a structured and substantial opportunity for students to practice and apply newly taught skills and knowledge under the teacher’s direction and guidance

3) an opportunity for feedback




Gradual Release of Responsibility

The clear, easy, and quick written or spoken expression of ideas.  In reading, the means freedom from word-ID problems that might hinder comprehension in silent reading or hinder the expression of ideas in oral reading; automaticity.
Fluent Reader
A reader whose performance meets or exceeds normal expectations with respect to age and ability; an independent reader.  A reader who reads at an adequate pace with sufficient accuracy and correct intonation to enable comprehension to occur.
Frustration Reading Level
A readability or grade level of material that is too difficult to be read successfully by a student, even with normal classroom instruction and support.  The frustration level is reached when a student cannot read a selection with more that 89% word-recognition or decoding accuracy.


Think:  Reading Records

A term used to classify literary works into categories such as:


*novel  *mystery  *historical fiction  *biography  *short story  *poem

Graded Word List
A list of words ranked by grade level, reader level, or other level of difficulty of complexity, often used to assess competence in word ID, knowledge of word-meanings, and spelling.
A written or printed representation of a phoneme




b for /b/


oy for /oi/ in boy

Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondence
The relationship between a grapheme and the phoneme(s) it represents; letter-sound correspondence.




c representing /k/ in cat

c representing /s/ in cent

Graphic Organizer
A visual representation of facts and concepts from a text and their relationships within an organized frame.  Graphic organizers are effective tools for thinking and learning.  They help teachers and students represent abstract or implicit info in more concrete form, they depict relationships among facts and concepts, they aid in organizing and elaborating ideas, they relate new info with prior knowledge, and effectively store and retrieve info.





Guided Reading
Reading instruction conducted in small, flexible groups in which everyone reads simultaneously and for which the teacher provides the structure and purpose for reading and for responding to the material read.  Little books are often used for guided reading.  Teacher will ask questions to check for comprehension (Who stole the cookie?  Why do you think he did that?)


High-Frequency Words
A word that appears much more often that most other words in spoken or written language; sight words.




it, would, could, the

Informal Reading Inventory


The use of a graded series of passages of increasing difficulty to determine students’ strengths, weaknesses, and strategies in word ID and comprehension and to determine a student’s independent, instruction, and frsturation reading levels.  Comprehension questions are often asked after each passage is read.
Interactive Writing
A shared writing experience used to assist emergent readers in learning to read and write.  With help from the teacher, students dictate sentences about a shared experience, such as a story, movie, or event.  The teacher stretches each word orally so students can distinuish its sounds/letters as they use chart paper to write the letter while repeating the sound.  After each word has been completed, the teacher and students reread it.  The students take turns writing letters to complete the words and sentences.  The completed charts are posted on the wall so the students can reread them or rely on them for standard spelling.
Invented Spelling
Spelling of sounds processed phonologically.  (A child’s attempt to match speech to print.); It is also know as phonetic spelling and temporary spelling.



splg = spelling

kut = cut

wrwlf = werewolf

Learning Center/Station
A location within a classroom in which students are presented with instructional materials, specific directions, clearly defined objectives, and opportunities for self-evaluation.
“Thinking about thinking”.; Awareness and knowledge of one’s mental process.  While “thinking about” their understanding of text, readers may adjust their reading speed to fit the difficulty level.
Minimally Contrasting Pairs
Words that differ only in the initial or medial or final sound






Mnemonic Device
A method for improving memory, especially the use of pattern strategies to memorize strings of facts.




NeverEatSoggyWaffles = North East South West

ROYGBIV = color pattern of the rainbow

The smallest unit of meaning.  Can be a letter, syllable, affix, root, or base word.  The addition of a morphome to a word adds a meaningful element or changes the meaning.




book = one book

add an s (<– the morpheme)

books = more than one book

The study of the structure and forms of words, including derivation, inflection, roots, base words, and combinging forms.
Nonphonetic Word
In teaching practice, a word whose pronunciation may not be accurately predicated from its spelling.




ghoti = fish

Nonsense Syllable
A pronounceable combo of graphic characters, usually trigrams, that do not make a word.




kak, vor, mek

all can be pronounced using English spellings

Pertains to orthography, the art or study of correct spelling according to established usage.
The way a language is written (encoded); spelling.
Peer Editing
A form of collaborative learning in which students work with their peers in editing a piece of writing.
The smallest unit of speech that, when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the meaning of words in a language.




/b/ in book contrasts with /t/ in took or /h/ in hook

Phoneme Grapheme Correspondence
The relationship between a phoneme and its graphemic representation(s)




/s/, spelled “s” in “sit, spelled “c” in city”,

spelled “ss” in grass

Phoneme/Phonemic Awareness
PA is awareness of the sounds (phonemes) that make up spoken words.  Such awareness doesn’t appear when kids learn to talk; this ability is not necessary for speaking and understanding spoken language.; However, PA is impt to understand the code of aphabetic languages and letters (and letter sounds).; Having PA provides some understanding of the notion that words are made up of phonemes.; This insight is not always easily achieved.; P are abstract units, and when one pronounces a word one does not produce a series of discrete phonemes; rather phonemes are folded into one another and are pronounced as a blend.; Although most kids have no difficulty segmenting words into syllables, many find it very difficult to segment at the phoneme level.; PA is an impt predictor of success for beginning readers.




Discrimination -What word doesn’t belong: “cat”, “mat”, “bat”, “ran”? “ran

Rhyming, blending, segmentation, etc.

A way of teaching, reading, and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationships, used most often in beginning instruction.  Phonics also refers to the correspondence of sounds to the letters that represent them.
Phonic Analysis
In teaching practice, the ID of words by their sounds.
A graphic character or symbol that can represent a phonetic sound, phoneme, or word.




Sound = OY.  Phonogram = oy, oi (loin, toy)

Sound = OW.  Phonogram = ow, ou (now, aloud)


The permissible part of accepted arrangements of speech sounds in forming morphemes and words; the rules for producing the phonemes in words.
Phonological Awareness
A broader term than phonemic awareness, phonological awareness refers to language sensitivity and ability to manipulate language at the levels of words, syllables, rhymes, and individual speech sounds.




say “rabbit”.  Now say it w/o the “ra”

A meaningful affix attached before a base word or root




re- in reprint

In a basal reading program, a booklet used before the first reader to introduce students to features in texts and books and sometimes to introduce specific characters found later in a series.
Referring to activities designed to develop needed attitudes and skills before formal instruction in reading.




Skimming text for key concepts/ideas

The 4 P’s (preview, predict, prior knowledge, purpose)

The initial creative and planning stage of writing, prior to drafting, in which the writer formulates ideas, gathers info, and considers ways in which to organize a piece of writing.; The 1st step in the writing process.





Writing key ideas


A beginning book for the teaching of reading; specifically, the first formal textbook in a basal reading program, ususally preceded by a readiness book and one or more preprimers.
Primary Language
The first language a child learns to speak.
Print Awareness
In emergent literacy, a learner’s growing recognition of the conventions and characteristics of a written language.




Think “Concepts of Print”

Print-Rich Environment
An environment in which students are provided many opportunities to interact with printed language, and an abundance and variety of printed materials are available and accessible.  Students have many opportunities to read and to be read to. In such an environment, reading and writing are modeled by the teacher and used for a wide variety of authentic everyday purposes.
A component of fluency that refers to reading with expression, which inclues the use of appropriate emphasis, stress, intonation, pitch, pauses, and phrasing that demonstrates understanding of syntax and mechanics.
R-Controlled Vowel Sound
The modified sound of a vowel immediately preceding /r/ in the same syllable.




How car (short “a”) becomes care (long “a”)

never, sir, curse, etc.

Recognition Vocabulary
The number of different words that are recognized without word analysis; words understood quickly and easily; sight vocabulary.
correspondence of ending sounds of words or lines of verse.




The cat ate a rat.

A vowel and any of the following consonants of a syllable.




/ook/ in look

/are/ in tare

/a/ in play

Temp support, guidance, or assistance provided to a student on a new or complex task.




Students work in partnership with a more advanced peer/adult who scaffolds the task by engaging in appropriate instructional interactions designed to model, assist, or provide necessary info.  These interactions should eventually lead to independence.

A diacritical mark that indicates the vowel sound in an unstressed sllable of a word.  It can be spelling with any of the vowel letters and is represented by the symbol “?”. A schwa sound is when a vowel is pronounced “uh” or “er” instead of with its short or long sound.




seldom . . . we say “seldum”

The study of meaning in language, as the analysis of the meanings of words, phrases, sentences, discourse, and entire texts.
Sight Word
A words that’s immediately recognised as a whole and does not require word analysis for ID.; A word taught as a whole.; Also known as a high-frequency word.




like, for, a, the

Sound O
The application of phonics skills in reproducing the sound(s) represented by a letter or letter group in a word.


Story Frame/Map
A graphic organizer of major events and ideas from a story to help guide students’ thinking and heighten their awareness of the structure of stories.  The teacher can model this process by filling out a chart on a projected image while reading.  Or students can complete a chart individually/in groups after a story is read.




Illustrating or noting the characters, setting, compare/contrast, problem/solution, conflict, climax, etc.

Structural Analysis
The ID of word-meaning elements to help understand the eaning of a word as a whole, morphemic analysis.




“re” and “read” in “reread”

A meaningful affix attached to the end of a base, root, or stem that changes meaning or grammatical function of the word.




“en” to form “oxen”

The division of words into syllables.




Clapping the syllables of a word



1.  The study of the way sentences are formed and of the grammatical rules that govern their formation.

2.  The pattern/structure of word order in sentences, clauses, and phrases.  Syntax examines the various ways that words can be combined to create meaning.  The direct teaching of syntactic patterns is critical for comprehension of higher-level texts as well as for the development of good writing skills.

Synthetic Method of Phonics
A way of teaching beginning reading by starting with word parts or elements, as sounds, or syllables, and later combining them into words.




Like that after-school program with hand signs, etc from Berkley

don’t teach /ae/, teach “aaaaaaa”

/b/, not /buh/

/ssss/, not /esss/

Visual Discrimination
1.; The process of perceiving similarities and differences in stimuli by sight.

2.; The abiilty to engage in such a process.




“was” vs “saw”

“where” vs “there”

noticing differences between two toy cars

1.; A voiced speech sound made without stoppage or friction of the air flow as it passes through the vocal tract.

2.; A letter(s) that represent a vowel sound.

A graphic organizer that’s used to involve students in thinking about and planning what they will study, learn, read about, or write about within a larger topic.  A teacher may begin with a brainstorming discussion of topics related to a particular theme and then represent subtopics thru the use of a web drawn on the board.  Webbing can be used to encourage students to consider what they know about each subtopic or what they want to learn.
Word Bank
A list or related words posted in the classroom, often written on cards, to increase  students’ exposure to infrequently occurring vocab that they’d usually encounter on in specialized contexts.  The words can all be related to one topic of study, or in other cases can be related by common spelling patterns.




Can be in pocket charts

Word Family
A group of letters consisting of a vowel or vowel team followed by a consonant or consonant blend (rime), to which many idfferent onsets (consonant or consonant blends) can be added.  Word families are also know as spelling patterns or phonograms.




-at (cat, bat, rat)

-ot (not, rot, dot)

-are (care, tare, hare)

Word Play
A child’s manipulation of sounds and words for language exploration and practice or for pleasure.




Using alliteration, creating rhymes, singing songs, clapping syllables, etc.

Word Wall
A systematically organized collection of words displayed in large letters or on cards on a wall or other large display space in the classroom.; The words are usually listed under their beginning letter.; The purpose is to work on spelling by displaying sight words and words that below to word families.
Writing Process
The series of sequential steps involved in a writing project including prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.; Repeated drafting, revising, and editing may occur several times during the process.
Instructional Implications
The Who, What, When, Why, Where of the particular item to be taught. Additionally, it evaluates the teaching that took place to see whether it acheived the learning objectives, etc.
Summative – at the end of a unit


Formative – given along the way to see what students are comprehending and allows for adaptation and/or reteaching as necessary.