A term used in survey research to refer to the match between the targetpopulation and the sample.
Clear, understandable representation of the data
Bell Curve
A frequency distribution statistics. Normal distribution is shaped like a bell.
Case Study
The collection and presentation of detailed information about a particularparticipant or small group, frequently including the accounts of subjectsthemselves.

Causal Model
A model which represents a causal relationship between two variables.
Confidence Level
The specific probability of obtaining some result from a sample if it did notexist in the population as a whole, at or below which the relationship will beregarded as statistically significant
1) A common statistical analysis, usually abbreviated as r, that measures thedegree of relationship between pairs of interval variables in a sample. Therange of correlation is from -1.00 to zero to +1.00. 2) A non-cause and effectrelationship between two variables.
A researcher’s ability to demonstrate that the object of a study is accuratelyidentified and described, based on the way in which the study was conducted
Being able to account for changes in the design of the study and the changingconditions surrounding what was studied.
Empathic Neutrality
A quality of qualitative researchers who strive to be non-judgmental whencompiling findings
Face Validity
How a measure or procedure appears.

A nonsequential text composed of links and nodes
A tentative explanation based on theory to predict a causal relationshipbetween variables.
Independent Variable
A variable that is part of the situation that exist from which originates thestimulus given to a dependent variable. Includes treatment, state of variable,such as age, size, weight, etc.
Interrater Reliability
The extent to which two or more individuals agree. It addresses theconsistency of the implementation of a rating system.
Level of Analysis
Chosen by determining which word, set of words, or phrases will constitute aconcept. According to Carley, 100-500 concepts is generally sufficient whencoding for a specific topic, but this number of course varies on a case by case basis.

Process of corresponding variables in experimental groups equally feature forfeature.
Narrative Inquiry
A qualitative research approach based on a researcher’s narrative account ofthe investigation, not to be confused with a narrative examined by theresearcher as data
In hypertext, each unit of information, connected by links
The target group under investigation, as in all students enrolled in first-yearcomposition courses taught in traditional classrooms. The population is theentire set under consideration. Samples are drawn from populations.