Phonological Awareness
the awareness that in addition to meaning, languages are composed of sound units of varying sizes: whole sentences, words, syllables, rimes. No letters needed.
Phonemic Awareness
a particular kind of phonological awareness but only at the level of phoneme, the smallest unit of sound in a language, no letters are needed to be aware of sound.
Rhyming
a phonological (not phonemic) awareness skill where students recognize that some words rhyme (sound alike).

The onsets of these words do not need to be the same. E.g. shoe, too, chew, and do rhyme.

Segmenting
a particular type of phonemic awareness involving separating syllables or words into their separate phonemes. E.g. bike is segmented into /b/ /i/ and /k/
Blending
a phonemic task which is opposite of segmenting. /b/ /i/ /k/ when blended makes bike.
Deletion
the phonemic awareness task of eliminating one phoneme from a larger unit of language. E.g.

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saying bat without the /b/ and then saying /at/

Substituting
the phonemic awareness task of substituting one phoneme for another, saying /bat/ with an /m/ instead of a /b/ results in mat.
Onsets
the consonants that precede rimes. E.g. the /bl/ in blue, the /ch/ in chew, the /m/ in mat.

Rimes
the part of syllables that begin with the vowel and extend to the end of the syllable. E.g. the /ew/ in chew or the /oo/ in too or in a multisyllabic word the /un/ and the /ay/ in Sunday.
Syllables
the parts of words that contain one and only one vowel sound. E.

g. hat has one syllable but so does heat. Heat has two vowel letters but only one vowel sound. Kindergarten children learn to beat out syllables. E.

g. vacation is a three beat/syllable word.

Explicit Strategies
teaching plans that are direct and transparent, they are planned ahead and teacher model segmenting and blending isolated letter sounds.

Implicit Strategies
spontaneous, taught as needed, with no isolation of letter sounds
Alliteration
the repitition of the first sound in a series of words. E.g. silly, sad, city
Assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds usually in the middles or ends of words without rhyming. E.

g. lake, made, play

Consonance
the repetition of consonant sound typically in the middles or ends of words. E.g. making, school, black