Fragrances used for external applications
such as spray perfumes, body care, home care, cosmetics, soaps & detergents
and incense. These are non- consumables. When we
smell a particular fragrance, such as, say, clean laundry or a fresh peach, we
instantly and unconsciously connect that smell to a portion of our memory.
Smell can evoke feelings and bring back memories that we forgot we had. Perfume
is, quite simply, a mastery of some of the most frequent scents, and the artful
combination thereof to produce a unique smell for an individual person. To
understand perfume, we would need to start at its inception, back in the time
of the ancient Egyptians.
Perfume is a mixture of
fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects,
and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a
person’s body. Perfume is a substance that gives off a pleasant odor. The word
perfume comes from the Latin word per fume which means “through
smoke”. Perfume isn’t just in a bottle of good smelling liquid. It is in
lipstick, face and body lotions and powders along with some other items. Many
of us started as babies using perfume in our baby lotions, baby powder, and
baby oils. As we grow older we may develop our own sense of what smells good
and we may decide to wear perfume or cologne. There is even perfume for air to
make it smell fresh. For this reason we burn incense or spray air fresheners.
Have people always been interested in how they smell?
In this research we have
survey the product performance and buying behavior of the fragrance of
perfumes, which are used by people of all ages. During this research we have
interacted with people of all ages who use perfume. After this research we came
to know how people perceives these products on the variables like price,
fragrance, advertisement, satisfaction, packaging, brand loyalty etc. We also
came to know which particular brand of perfume is most preferred by people of
different age groups. In this research we have surveyed that how frequently and
how much perfume they use, whether they buy small, big or family pack. Trend of
ongoing changes in their likings has been shown in the report. In this report
we have tried to explain the entire search and facts product wise.
LEADING BRANDS IN MEN PERFUME
stated that the perfume market is segmented at micro level with respect to the
purpose of buying and preferences of user.
(Jim Blythe argues)
that understanding the purchasing behavior of consumer is somewhat complicated;
consumer’s attachment and involvement with a product or brand are determined by
number of reasons and therefore it is almost impossible to nail a definite
reason behind consumer’s purchasing behavior.
(Hoyer and Maclnn)
is support the argument that consumers are prone to be attracted to a product
or brand on account of how much appealing, eye catching and attractive models,
spokesperson or celebrities reflect the essence of the product or brand.
(Dhar et al)
suggest that fragrance carries a strong weight among all factors considered by
research respondents, hence, the consumers would prefer foreign brand over
local product. Exploring Indians as fashionable people.
(Borgave and Chaudhari)
suggest that the preference and usage of perfumes will have to be placed in
accordance with demography, situation, mood and buying motives of the consumer.
Although the article focuses on preferences for perfumes of adolescents between
20-25 years, yet discovers that gender difference does not change the buying
pattern of this age group.3 The new multinational entrants from France, Spain,
Italy and China have.
OF THE STUDY
This project is based on user behavior
towards Perfumes. Objectives of the study are:
other objective is to know about the customer satisfaction associated with the
product and the customer preference level.
increase customer satisfaction and recapture the market share by fulfilling the
study the factors affecting the consumption pattern.
research design is exploratory in nature. The type of sampling used is
intercept and the respondents were administered 200 questionnaires .The
sampling area is Ludhiana.
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential
oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals,
objects, and living spaces a pleasant scent. The odor iferous compounds that
make up a perfume can be manufactured synthetically or extracted from plant or
animal sources. Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human
civilizations either through ancient texts or from archaeological digs. Modern
perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma
compounds such as vanillin or coumar in, which allowed for the composition of
perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics
alone. The precise formulae of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Even if
they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complexion redients
and odorants that they would be of little use in providing a guide to the
general consumer in description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless,
connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skilful at identifying components
and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts.
The most practical way to start describing a
perfume is according to the elements of the fragrance notes of the scent or the
“family” it belongs to, all of which affect the overall impression of
a perfume from first application to the last lingering hint of scent.
Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as
having three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent accord . The notes
unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the
deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage.
These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of
scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. Top notes
consist of small, light molecules that evaporate quickly. They form a person’s
initial impression of a perfume and thus are very important in the selling of a
perfume. Also called the head notes.
The scent of a perfume that emerges just
prior to when the top notes dissipate. The middle note compounds form the
“heart” or main body of a perfume and act to mask the often
unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with
time. They are also called the heart notes.
The scent of a perfume that appears close to
the departure of the middle notes. The base and middle notes together are the main
theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. Compounds
of this class of scents are typically rich and “deep” and are usually
not perceived until 30 minutes after application. The scents in the top and
middle notes are influenced by the base notes, as well the scents of the base
notes will be altered by the type of fragrance materials used as middle notes.
Manufacturers of perfumes usually publish perfume notes and typically they
present it as fragrance pyramid, with the components listed in imaginative and
To analyze buying behavior and in order to
gain insight into the buyer need satisfaction level a questionnaire was
formulated and administered among 50 people in coaching centre, Most of the
questions is based on liker scale. Questionnaire was attached in annexure.
A number of secondary information was used
they were: Web sites: Scribd, Wikipedia and other brands websites. Search of
two previous research papers these two research paper were attached in the