Fungi is the one themain organism on this earth. Fungi play many important roles; fungi andbacteria functions as decomposer which is decompose the dead material to thesoil. Our earth will face problem if there so many dead animals and plant.Fungi also necessary in mycorrhizae and plant growth, through the establishmentof mycorrhizal associations. It also can be the food source for the humanbecause some mushroom can be eat and can be established in entrepreneurshipfield.
Besides, fungi famous as the substances in making Penicillin usingfungus Penicillium. Endophytic fungal having highly diversity in the planttissue. They are having mutualism interaction because the lowering the amountof herbivore by producing their mycotoxins for example alkaloids (Stanley & William , 2002). But still, not allof them reducing the herbivore such as in woody plants. Endophytic fungalconsists of much nitrogen which is lead to the synthesis of nitrogen –richalkaloids. High amount of alkaloid endophytes are lead to the big amount ofherbivore and the nitrogen in the soil.
Plant can be infected due to the highnitrogen level in soils. Endophytic fungi also important in the productionenzymes such as isoflavonoids, xylanase and others. It also can kill theharmful-disease that gives bad impact to human, animal and plants. Fungi areeukaryotic organism .They do not have chlorophyll and cannot produce their ownfood.
Fungi is the main components of carbon cycle as they acts as decomposerswhich is can break down lignin. Their sporocarps have microscopic andmacroscopic that show characteristic shapes but only limited tissuedifferentiation. Their vegetative state is a non- motile mycelium of hyphae inor on the substratum shows the internal protoplasmic streaming. Most of thefungi grow as hyphae and have a thread-like structure 2-10µm in diameter andcylindirical shape. The apical growth and branching/forking will pursue theproduction of a mycelium; an interconnected network of hyphae. Once thecolonization of food source is achieved ,the development of the hyphae and thendevelop into mycelium. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB) is the common method instaining because it simple and it has three components such as phenol, lacticacid and cotton blue.The mixture and ofnutrients or substances are called culture media.
It used in laboratory for tocultivate the microorganisms. Media culture can be solid and liquid. The mediaculture can be run in short or long term. There are some methods to run thefungal isolation such as the agar slant is stored at 4ºC which is take time ina month or year. Second, the agar slant stotre in 4 months or take a yearunder temperature 4ºC and the Barleyseed stored in years at 80ºC. Lyophilization also is the one of the fungipurification and preservation which is take years to run the isolation