Grade IV – Apes and ManInGrade IV the Old World monkeys, Apes, and finally humans appeared. Differentkind of apes lived in Eurasia and Africa about 25 Mya, during the Mioceneepoch. These apes feature were more similar to modern humans. Therefore, thisprimates are called “Anthropoids.” Next, about 5 Mya, more Hominids inhabitedAfrica. As a result of the environmental selection, the human line started torise specifically in Ethiopia. Later, during the Pleistocene epoch, nearly 1.8Mya, a more modern human species appeared.

Soon, nearly 300,000 years ago thatthe Homo sapiens fully evolved. Therefore, it is considered that apes wereantecessors of men. There have been found some similarities between man andapes; first, both are members of the Hominoid family. Second, both are veryintelligent, apes have shown their capacity to learn and understand, but manhas much complex thoughts than apes.

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Another similarity is their complexnervous systems. Also, both have opposable thumbs and muscles alike that theyuse to lift and push objects. As a result, changing to bipedalism offered manyadvantages to the new environments. Although, some other behaviors continuedidentical to nonhuman primates.

In the same way as the full evolved humanemerged from Africa and later immigrated all over the world, some apesinhabited Africa such as Gorillas, Bonobos, and Chimpanzees, while others likethe Orangutans and Gibbons evolved in Southeast Asia.Moreover, the biggest of all primates is the gorilla. For the lowland adult male gorilla measure up about 66.9 in. tall and weigh an average of 374 pounds, while adult female gorillas measure up about 59.1 in. height and her weigh is no more than 160 pounds. On the other hand, adult male mountain gorillas may weigh up to 484 pounds, and adult females weigh about 215 pounds.

The adult male bonobos measure up to 4 feet tall and weigh an average of 85 pounds, while adult female bonobos measure up over 3 feet tall and weigh an average of 68 pounds. The adult male chimpanzees measure up to approximately 4 feet high, and weigh between 90 and 120 pounds, while the female chimpanzees weigh between 60 and 110 pounds. The adult male orangutan measure up to typically 4 ft.

6 in. tall and weigh around 165 pound, while the adult female orangutan measure up to 3 ft. 9 in. and weigh around 82 pounds. Male orangutans are approximately twice the size of the females.

It is believed that the bigger size of males is because of the strong competition among males for females. Next, the gibbons are classified as lesser apes and are slender, smaller, and more agile than other apes as well. They exhibit many characteristics of primates, including flat faces, enlarged brain sizes, grasping hands and feet, arms longer than legs, no tails, and broad chests. Male gibbons are just under 3 ft. in length and weigh about 15 pounds. Furthermore, the evolution of Homo erectus showed more human examination in their behavioral and way of life, giving a better understanding about our evolutionary past. In addition, in 1974 in Afar locality, in the Hadar archaeological region of the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia, Lucy was found.

She is the almost complete skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis ever discovered. She is also called Denkenesh in Amharic, the language of the local people. Lucy was the closest relative of human species who lived about 3.18 Mya.