Grade IV – Apes and ManIn
Grade IV the Old World monkeys, Apes, and finally humans appeared. Different
kind of apes lived in Eurasia and Africa about 25 Mya, during the Miocene
epoch. These apes feature were more similar to modern humans. Therefore, this
primates are called “Anthropoids.” Next, about 5 Mya, more Hominids inhabited
Africa. As a result of the environmental selection, the human line started to
rise specifically in Ethiopia. Later, during the Pleistocene epoch, nearly 1.8
Mya, a more modern human species appeared. Soon, nearly 300,000 years ago that
the Homo sapiens fully evolved. Therefore, it is considered that apes were
antecessors of men. There have been found some similarities between man and
apes; first, both are members of the Hominoid family. Second, both are very
intelligent, apes have shown their capacity to learn and understand, but man
has much complex thoughts than apes. Another similarity is their complex
nervous systems. Also, both have opposable thumbs and muscles alike that they
use to lift and push objects. As a result, changing to bipedalism offered many
advantages to the new environments. Although, some other behaviors continued
identical to nonhuman primates. In the same way as the full evolved human
emerged from Africa and later immigrated all over the world, some apes
inhabited Africa such as Gorillas, Bonobos, and Chimpanzees, while others like
the Orangutans and Gibbons evolved in Southeast Asia.Moreover, the biggest of all primates is the gorilla. For the lowland adult male gorilla measure up about 66.9 in. tall and weigh an average of 374 pounds, while adult female gorillas measure up about 59.1 in. height and her weigh is no more than 160 pounds. On the other hand, adult male mountain gorillas may weigh up to 484 pounds, and adult females weigh about 215 pounds. The adult male bonobos measure up to 4 feet tall and weigh an average of 85 pounds, while adult female bonobos measure up over 3 feet tall and weigh an average of 68 pounds. The adult male chimpanzees measure up to approximately 4 feet high, and weigh between 90 and 120 pounds, while the female chimpanzees weigh between 60 and 110 pounds. The adult male orangutan measure up to typically 4 ft. 6 in. tall and weigh around 165 pound, while the adult female orangutan measure up to 3 ft. 9 in. and weigh around 82 pounds. Male orangutans are approximately twice the size of the females. It is believed that the bigger size of males is because of the strong competition among males for females. Next, the gibbons are classified as lesser apes and are slender, smaller, and more agile than other apes as well. They exhibit many characteristics of primates, including flat faces, enlarged brain sizes, grasping hands and feet, arms longer than legs, no tails, and broad chests. Male gibbons are just under 3 ft. in length and weigh about 15 pounds. Furthermore, the evolution of Homo erectus showed more human examination in their behavioral and way of life, giving a better understanding about our evolutionary past. In addition, in 1974 in Afar locality, in the Hadar archaeological region of the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia, Lucy was found. She is the almost complete skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis ever discovered. She is also called Denkenesh in Amharic, the language of the local people. Lucy was the closest relative of human species who lived about 3.18 Mya.