GustaveCourbet Artist Overview and Analysis”. 2017.
TheArtStory.org Contentcompiled and written by Stephen Knudsen Edited and published by The Art StoryContributors Accessed 04 Dec 2017Morrow, John(2011). “Romanticism and political thought in the early nineteenthcentury” (PDF). In Stedman Jones, Gareth; Claeys, Gregory. The CambridgeHistory of Nineteenth-Century Political Thought.
The Cambridge History ofPolitical Thought. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp.
39–76. Retrieved 10 September 2017.McCoy,Claire Black, Dr. “Romanticism in France.
” Khan Academy. AccessedNovember 06, 2017.”Artand Enlightenment.” Europeana Exhibitions. Accessed November 05, 2017.”Age ofEnlightenment.” New World Encyclopedia, .
3 Nov 2016, 16:03 UTC. 5 Nov 2017SuzanneDesan et al. Eds. The French Revolution in Global Perspective (2013), pp. 3, 8,10Bell, DavidAvrom (2007). The First Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the birth of warfareas we know it. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
p. 51. ISBN 0-618-34965-0.A. Aulard inArthur Tilley, ed. (1922). Modern France. A Companion to French Studies.
Cambridge UP. p. 115.DmitryShlapentokh, The French Revolution and the Russian Anti-Democratic Tradition(Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997), pp. 220–28Matusitz,Jonathan Symbolism in Terrorism: Motivation, Communication, and Behavior, p. 19Palmer, R.R.
& Colton, Joel A History of the Modern World pp. 393–97Knudsen,Stephen. “Gustave Courbet Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works.” TheArt Story.
Accessed November 05, 2017.Foucault,Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason.Vintage Books, 1988. Pg.
45Robert A.Ferguson, The American Enlightenment, 1750–1820 (1994). Pg.123-5Sootin,Harry. “Isaac Newton.” New York, Messner (1955) pg. 34Bibliography In conclusion, even though Gustave Courbet and others likehim did play an incredibly influential role in helping direct French artsociety in the direction of realism and reason.
The real culprits for thisgradual change were the flow of events in French society. These events createdopportunistic openings for people to become self-reliant thinkers, that wouldcontinue onto become a respected Democracy. French Romanticism did not getmurdered either, it got suppress by the common folk, until open patriotismcould become a cause for celebration again. Therefore, arguably, GustaveCourbet is not the Murderer of French Romanticism that the textbooks ofcontemporary art name him as, and he cannot be the Father of Reason if itsinception had very little to do with him alone. Gustave Courbet, theinfluential realist painter, was just that, an influential realist painter.
The chaos of war, pestilence, famine, and depravity were thedrivers of that choreography. Therefore, undoubtedly the death of FrenchRomanticism did not happen because of Gustave Courbet or anyone man. Tt occurredthrough clear and obvious necessity, not the activities of a few people thatdecided to think for themselves. Napoleon’s relentless campaigns led the way to his people andgovernment committing mutiny and by the Act of abdication of Napoleon, theAllied powers forced him into exile. The Allies stated that Emperor Napoleonwas the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe.
Realism waschoreographed into existence by the hope of a better future for the liveswithin French society.When you place all these achievements together and look atother artists of the time, Courbet does look like he should be named the Fatherof Realism. But when taking a broader more historical look at transition andthe events that transpired at the time. The transition from the brainwashing ofthe French Academy’s Romanticism to the rebellion’s Realism was inevitable. TheNapoleonic Wars made certain the rebellious ideas of realism would gainmomentum with its tireless onslaught of death and destruction.21Gustave Courbet’s most notable work was Burial at Ornans(1849). This painting is famous for its overall application of all the ethicsand values Courbet insisted upon, and on top of that it is sized at 22 feetlong.
He went on to create hundreds of works and many more of those works wereconsidered extremely influential pieces. In the end however, do Courbet’saccomplishment’s merit him the titles of ‘Father of Realism’ and ‘Murderer ofFrench Romanticism?’ Content compiled and written by Stephen Knudsen Edited andpublished by The Art Story Contributors Accessed 04 Dec 2017 20. GustaveCourbet Artist Overview and Analysis”.
2017. TheArtStory.org ____________________ Gustave Courbet’s democratic eye revolutionized Western Art.His new form of Realism paved the way for other Modern movements, such asImpressionism and Post-Impressionism. Manet, Monet, Renoir, and others haddirect contact with Courbet and were profoundly affected by the man and hispaintings. Courbet’s visceral paint application also opened a path for figureand landscape painters of the twentieth century such as Willem de Kooning,Fairfield Porter, Lucian Freud, the Bay Area Figurative Painters, and others. At the age of 21, Courbet moved to Paris.
He avoiding studyin the studios of any of the period’s many academic celebrities, nor did heenroll in the top tier academic system for the arts in Paris, the Ecole desBeaux-Arts. Instead he took a few lessons from lesser-known teachers, butmostly taught himself by copying paintings by Caravaggio, Rubens and others inthe Louvre. On a visit to Holland he was also able to copy the paintings ofRembrandt and Velazquez. Courbet made his own rigorous schedule and jumpedheadlong into painting. He often replicated a classical painting again andagain to uncover its secrets. He rounded out his independent study by paintingfrom nature and paid models. When visiting home at Ornans, he painted friendsand family.
2019. Morrow, John (2011). “Romanticism and politicalthought in the early nineteenth century” (PDF).
In Stedman Jones, Gareth;Claeys, Gregory. The Cambridge History of Nineteenth-Century Political Thought.The Cambridge History of Political Thought. Cambridge, United Kingdom:Cambridge University Press. pp. 39–76.
Retrieved 10 September 2017. __________________More recently, however, historians have also seen his work asan important prelude to other artists of early modernism such as Édouard Manetand Claude Monet. In theprocess of clearing away the rhetoric of Acadmey painting, Courbet oftensettled on compositions that seemed collaged and crude to prevailingsensibilities.
At times he also abandoned careful modeling in favor of applyingpaint thickly in broken flecks and slabs. Such stylistic innovations made himgreatly admired by later modernists that promoted liberated compositions andamplified surface texture. trying to impose. Rebellious works in art started showing inthe works of artists that came to call themselves realists.
One such realist,Gustave Courbet, was considered important to the emergence of Realism in themid-nineteenth century. Rejecting the classical and theatrical styles of theFrench Academy, his art insisted on the physical reality of the objects heobserved – even if that reality was plain and blemished. A committedRepublican, he also saw his Realism to champion the peasants and country folkfrom his home town.
He has long been famous for his response to the politicalupheavals which gripped France in his lifetime, and he would die in exile inSwitzerland when he was found responsible for the cost of rebuilding of Paris’Vendome Column. 18. Ibid.17.
McCoy, Claire Black, Dr. “Romanticismin France.” Khan Academy. Accessed November 06, 2017. ______________ Romanticism being the artistic,literary, musical and intellectual movement that it was primarily characterizedby its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of allthe past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It waspartly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social andpolitical norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalizationof nature, all components of modernity.
It was embodied most strongly in thevisual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography,education, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect onpolitics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatismand nationalism. However, the sufferings of the families and individuals beganto run their course as more and more people began tuning into the corruption oftheir government and the brainwashing they were One might trace the emergence of thisnew Romantic art to the painting of Jacques-Louis David who expressed passionand a very personal connection to his subject in Neoclassical paintings likeOath of the Horatii and Death of Marat. If David’s work reveals the Romanticimpulse in French art early on, French Romanticism was more thoroughlydeveloped later in the work of painters and sculptors such as Theodore Gericault,Eugene Delacroix and Francois Rude.18Romanticism in the middle of thenineteenth century, he found it difficult to concretely define. Writing in hisSalon of 1846, he affirmed that “romanticism lies neither in the subjects thatan artist chooses nor in his exact copying of truth, but in the way hefeels.
Romanticism and modern art are one and the same thing, in otherwords: intimacy, spirituality, color, yearning for the infinite, expressed by allthe means the arts possess.'”17 16. “Art andEnlightenment.
” Europeana Exhibitions. Accessed November 05, 2017. 15. Ibid._________________While the Academy’s Romanticism’s philosophies tried to bringout the more emotional side while adhering to it strict guidelines. ‘Even whenCharles Baudelaire wrote about FrenchThe Enlightenment profoundly influenced the world of artgiving the medium a specific mainstream culture and driving it, for the firsttime, into an analytically academia situated format.
The philosophies of thismovement were centered on rationalism, tolerance and liberty.16 The age of Enlightenment is considered to have ended with theFrench Revolution, which had a violent aspect that discredited it in the eyesof many. Also, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), “who referred to Sapere aude! (Dareto know!) as the motto of the Enlightenment, ended up criticizing theEnlightenment confidence on the power of reason. Romanticism, with its emphasisupon imagination, spontaneity, and passion, emerged also as a reaction againstthe dry intellectualism of rationalists.”15death to millions in religious wars. Also, the wideavailability of knowledge was made possible through the production ofencyclopedias, serving the Enlightenment cause of educating the human race. 14. “Age ofEnlightenment.
” New World Encyclopedia, .3 Nov 2016, 16:03 UTC. 5 Nov 2017 13. Suzanne Desan et al. Eds. The FrenchRevolution in Global Perspective (2013), pp. 3, 8, 10 12. Bell, David Avrom (2007).
TheFirst Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the birth of warfare as we know it. NewYork: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 51. ISBN 0-618-34965-0.
_______________________The Enlightenment advocated reason as a means to establishingan authoritative system of aesthetics, ethics, government, and even religion,which would allow human beings to obtain objective truth about the whole ofreality. Emboldened by the revolution in physics commenced by Newtonian kinematics,Enlightenment thinkers argued that reason could free humankind fromsuperstition and religious authoritarianism that had brought suffering andThe Age of Enlightenment, sometimes called the Age of Reason,refers to the time of the guiding intellectual movement, called TheEnlightenment. It covers about a century and a half in Europe, beginning withthe publication of Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum (1620) and ending withImmanuel Kant’s ‘Critique of Pure Reason'(1781). From the perspective of socio-political phenomena, the period isconsidered to have begun with the close of the Thirty Years’ War (1648) andended with the French Revolution (1789).14 The Revolution also witnessed the birth of total war byorganizing the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards theobjective of military conquest.12 Some of its central documents,like the Declaration of the Rights of Man, expanded the arena of human rightsto include women and slaves, leading to movements for abolitionism anduniversal suffrage in the next century.1311.
A. Aulard in Arthur Tilley, ed. (1922).
Modern France. A Companion to French Studies. Cambridge UP.
p. 115.10. Dmitry Shlapentokh, The French Revolution andthe Russian Anti-Democratic Tradition (Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers,1997), pp.
220–289. Ibid., 361.____________________ Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republicsand democracies. It became the focal point for the development of all modernpolitical ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism,nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism, among many others. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate Frenchpolitics to this day. The Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudalsystem, the emancipation of the individual, the greater division of landedproperty, the abolition of the privileges of noble birth and the nominalestablishment of equality.
The French Revolution differed from otherrevolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting allhumanity.11Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution, through his militarycampaigns, went on to create the Consulate and after that, the First Empire. Themodern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. Almost allfuture revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as theirpredecessor.
9 Its central phrases and cultural symbols. Such as LaMarseilaise and Liberte, Fraternite, egalite, ou la mort, became the clarioncall for other major upheavals in modern history, including the RussianRevolution over a century later.108. Palmer, R.R.& Colton, Joel A History of the Modern World pp.
393–977. Matusitz, Jonathan Symbolism in Terrorism: Motivation,Communication, and Behavior, p. 196. Palmer, R.
R. & Colton, Joel A History of the ModernWorld pp. 393–97_____________________The Directory was an extremely unorganized groupcharacterized by its blunders as a ruling party, some of which include; suspendedelections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against theCatholic clergy, and significant military conquests abroad.
8 Overwhelmedby charges of corruption, the directory collapsed in a coup led by NapoleonBonaparte in 1799. With the outbreak of rebellion, and eventual execution ofLouis XV! Of France in January 1793, the Committee of Public Safety imposed a dictatorship,which was later named “The Reign of Terror.” There were estimates ranging from16,000 to 40,000 civilians executed by revolutionary tribunals.7 Thecommittee focused on the abolishment of slavery, de-Christianizing society, andthe securing borders. After the Thermidorian reaction, a new executive councilknown as the directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
caused massive taxes upon all social and political classes ofthe time.6 One could only imagine the hatred towards the government peopleof that time must have felt, through the increased pains of starvation.However, the world at the time could not have expected the turmoil that gaverise to the upheaval of the French revolution. 4.
Knudsen, Stephen. “Gustave Courbet Biography, Art,and Analysis of Works.” The Art Story. Accessed November 05, 2017. ____________________The 17th-18th centuries within theFrance, and its territories, was a time where chaos was lurking around everycorner, and the true hearts of patriots were committed to, pursuing anddreaming of a more ideal France. Before the French Revolution, which lastedfrom 1789 to 1799, Tensions within the nation were high due to the poor budgetmanagement and debt that, The fact remains that hedid, in fact, play a role in the redevelopment of rational thought, reason andrealism. But did Gustave Courbet really play such a pivotal role in the killingoff of French Romanticism? Did he play a big enough role to be called theFather of Reason? Through an examination of Courbet’s role prior, and followingthe death of Romanticism, a claim will be made on how his co-influence onlyhelped excite into fruition, the Academically, suppressed, hearts of rebellion,rather than beginning and fathering the whole movement amongst himself andfellow realists.4 However the remnants of thought, from the time of Reason, didnot fully dissolve for artists, such as Gustave Courbet, who used contemporaryconcepts to portray realism.
He did this in order to convey the values of theworld around him, not the glamour, but raw emotion and mood of the scenes hewas trying to depict. Although, he did seem to have more of a taste for themorbid and dark side of the life, his art did hold an optimistic almosthumoristic quality.Instead it brought criticism upon the age of Reason statingthat “art shouldn’t imitate reality, but be a realm of fantasy.”3.
Foucault,Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason.Vintage Books, 1988. Pg. 452.
RobertA. Ferguson, The American Enlightenment, 1750–1820 (1994). Pg.
123-51. Sootin,Harry. “Isaac Newton.” New York, Messner (1955) pg. 34_____________________ Amidst the seemingly endlessly looping destruction and faultyreconstruction of rebellious France, the philosophies of the Enlightenment becameconfused and muzzled. It impacted the world of art by sending it into a very susceptiblestate that, as France came under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte, art fell easyprey to the newly formed Academy of Art in Paris that promoted the Romanticismmovement. This movement was meant to bring the nation together restoring peaceand uniting its citizens in their patriotism and love for the epics.
3Enlightenment and reason, at the turning of the 17thcentury, were key factors in creating the world in all aspects of the way itexists today. Its rationality based philosophy produced questions, andcriticisms towards the current methodologies and ideologies, that broke into thechaos that eventually spread like wildfire on a global scale. The keyphilosophers that influenced the enlightenment with their works include, butnot limited to, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, John Locke and Baruch Spinoza.
1 The Declaration of Independence and the eventual writing of the Constitutionof the United States of America, 1776-1787, both can be traced back to havingbeen influenced by the works of those philosophers.2 The same can besaid for the likeminded civilians of French society of the time that weresuffering under the rule of their monarch King Louis XVI. November 5, 2017Art F17: Contemporary Art HistoryBen C. Rhodes The Murdererof French Romanticism and Father of Reason