haof land. The woreda has more than 3427 ha of land under irrigation, 109ha of which is irrigated by modern motor pump technology. Moderatelydense vegetation coverage includes forests, bushes, scrublands and grasslands.

Natural resources such as stone, sand, charcoal, timber and wild animals are alsofound here.  As well as a survey of the landchorabotor woreda shows that 34.9% is arable or cultivable (24.6% was underannual crops), 20% pasture, 39.7% forest, and the remaining 15.4% is considereddegraded or built-up areas.

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Fruits and sugar cane are importantcash crops. Coffee is anotherimportant cash crop of this woreda. Over 50 square kilometers are planted withthis crop.3.1.

5. SoilSoil is loose materialsoverlaying on the surface of the earth crust. It is very essential for plant togrow, animal and human get their food from these plants. Examining the type ofsoil helps for agricultural activities while observed from pollen carryingcrops in aggravating malaria risk. The soil description for the study area isadapted from the FAO (1990), Shape file. The types of soil distribution of thestudy area are dominated by five major soil types.

Those are Dystric cambisols,pellic vertisols, orthic Acrisols, Chromic vertisols and Lithosols. Dystriccambisols and orthic Acrisols are the major soil types of the study area.3.1.5.

1Vertisols Vertisols are heavy clay soils in flat areas.During dry season they shrink and have deep cracks in a polygonal pattern, buton the contrary during the wet season the clay swells and causes pressure inthe sub-soil. Chromic vertisols are brownish and better drained. But, ingeneral, vertisols have fairly good, but limited agricultural potentialities.Land preparation is difficult, dry soils are hard and wet soils are sticky. Themoisture condition of the surface layer is only during for a short periodfavorable to prepare land. Another difficulty is that the permeability of thesubsoil is very low.

The soil has high water retention, but relatively a smallamount of water is available for plant growth. Rooting depth might berestricted because of the swelling and shrinking properties of the soil. 3.1.

5.2.Dystric Nitosols/Orthic acrisolsNit sols are deep,well-drained, red, tropical soils. Nitisols have high moisture storagecapacity. They are finely textured weathering products of intermediate to basicparent rock.  Nitisols arepredominantly found in level to hilly land under tropical rain forest orsavannah vegetation. Nitosols are deep, clay red soils with an argillic Bhorizon.

They have rather good potentialities for agriculture. These soils havevery good physical properties. They have a uniform profile, are porous, have astable structure and a deep rooting volume. Their moisture storage capacity is high.

3.1.6.SOCIO ECONOMIC CONDITION 3.1.

6.1.PopulationAccordingto the national census 2007, the total population of limuseka woreda is189, 463,of whom 95,869 were men and 93,594 were women; 5,185 or 2.74% of its populationwere urban dwellers. Themajority of the inhabitants were Moslem, with 62.

13% of thepopulation reporting they observed this belief, while 19.27% of the populationsaid they practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and 17.87% were protestant.As well as in choraboter the total population of the weredas was 91,738 of whom46, 454 were men and 45,284 were women; 1043 or1.

14% of its population wasurban dwellers. The majority of the in habitants were Moslem, with 65.26% ofthe population reporting they observed this belief, while29.27% of thepopulation said the practiced Ethiopian orthodocs Christianity and 4.94% wereprotestant.3.1.

7.Farming system In the district,10,241 hectares (ha) are currently covered by forest and bush, while 38,874 haare used for crop production. There are two distinct seasons in the study area:the rainy season starting in late March and ending in October, and the dryseason occurring during November to early March.The farming system of the working area is mixed farming systemwhich includes both crop production and animal husbandry. A survey of the landin this woreda shows that 34.

9% is arable or cultivable (24.6% was under annualcrops), 20% pasture, 39.7% forest, and the remaining 15.4% is considereddegraded or built-up areas. Fruits and sugar cane are alsoimportant cash crops.The dominant cultivatedannual crops are like cereal, legumes and purpose crops and poultry productionare, beef cattle, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. Beef in rural areamore adapted in the area.

In crops like teff, maize, wheat, bean and othercrops to local farmers are used these type of production system to increase thesource of income and living standard of the community. Coffee is also animportant cash crop for this woreda; over 50 square kilometers are planted withthis crop.3.2. Researchdesign, Sourcesand Types of Data 3.

2.1. ResearchdesignA research designcan be understood as the framework in which data will be collected and analyzed(Bryman, 2008). This research is, therefore, Aretrospective comparative study design will be employed using data from localhealth services (health centers and health posts) from both study weredas. Recordsof malaria episodes over five years will be retrieved from the local primaryhealth care units (PHCUs) and climatic (rainfall and temperature) studyarea over 5years. As well as environmental factors responsible for this casewill be selected from their sources.

These factors include, elevation(altitude), slope, soil, distance from swamp areas, and distance from streams.3.2.2.

Sources and Types ofDataThedata required for this study will be both primary and secondary data source forthe malaria risk mapping of the study area, which will obtained from fieldsurvey and concerned institutions. The primary sources include GPS, andtopographic information (SRTM data), topographic map (1:50,000 scale), thesecondary data will be acquired mainly from satellite images,Remote sensing satellite images, soil map and clinical data (malaria cases)climatic data (rainfall and temperature), of the study area. In the study multiparameter analyzer, hardware and software will be applied. For this study, bothprimary and secondary data will be use and their sources are described in thefollowing table.