Why do we need family?
Procreation, socialization, economic/emotional security, social status.
Two or more persons who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption.
Nuclear family
Husband and wife, children (biological or adopted), single parent, same sex parenthood, grandparents raising children.

Extended family
2 or more generations live with each other or near to one another.
Quantitative research
Numerical analyses of peoples responses or characteristics.
Qualitative research
non-numerical data
Industrial Revolution
Explosion in number and size of cities in the westChanges in average level of educationPhysical separation of work from the householdDeclines in birth and death rates
Structural functionalism
Family is a social system and it has several parts.Relationship between family and larger society as well as internal relationships among family members.
Levels of Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Perspective
Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem.Family influences and is influenced by the environment.
4 social change assumptions
1. All social behavior is a series of exchanges.

2. In course of exchanges, individuals attempt to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs. (Credit>debt).

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3. Under certain circumstances, a person will accept costs in exchange for rewards.4. When we receive rewards from others, we are obligates to reciprocate.

Developmental tasks
Tasks that arise at particular points in an individuals life. Achievement of tasks leads to happiness and further success, failure leads to unhappiness, further failure, and societal disapproval.

Determines success in family relations

For a family to grow it news to fulfill…
-Biological requirements-Cultural imperatives-Personal aspirations and values
Mothers line of family
Fathers line of family
Men’s sphere
Worlds of work, rough ethic of business world, money is only reward.

Women’s sphere
world of home, morally pure. Center of affection, nurturing, emotions.
Virtuous womanhood
Right after civil war, women as frail, innately pure. Needed at home, forced to hide sexuality, condemned contraception.
True womanhood
Women expected to exhibit piety, purity, submissiveness, domesticity. Middle class women only worked if necessary.
4 characteristics of emerging “modern” american family (1776-1900)
1. Marriage: mutual respect and affection2.

Wife cared for home and children3. “Childhood”: protect and support children4. Decline in number of children per family.

Individual and personal relationships within families, enchanted emotional rewards, support independence.
Decline of children per family in 1800’s
Early 1800’s – 7 children avg.Early 1850’s – 5 children avg.Children need discipline and economic support as well as attention affection, love, care, etc.

Racial groups
Socially defined group distinguished by selected, inherited physical characteristics.
Ethnic group
Sense of peoplehood based on common national origin, religion, or language.
Minority group
subordinate to majority in terms of power and prestige, not numbers.
Immigration movement 1820-1880
Nuclear families from northern Europe (Germany/Scandanavia) usually farmers, settled in mid west.
Immigration movement 1880-1924
Single males from souther europe concentrated in industrial cities of northeast and midwest.
Immigration movement of 1924
60% of cities with populations of over 100,000 presented ethnic enclaves. (Assimilation/acculturation/biculturalism)Chain migration.
Chain migration
Individual moves from NY to Chicago to get a job.

When they do well, family in NY moves to Chicago as well.

Modern immigrant debate
Myth of less-educated/welfare-dependent population. Realistically, they are a mix of engineers, scientists, computer specialists.
4 Global Processes
1. Migration2. Urbanization3. Increasingly transnational nature of families4. Remittances
Companionate families
Married couples start to emphasize companionship and sexuality, effection becomes more open with children as well.
Idea that within a given family, family relationships are more important over the concerns of individual family members.Very influential in the lives of Latinos.