1. Examples of psychosocial factors that affect the health care professional include: Communication, patient physician relationship, patient attitude, and type of disease that the patient suffers from. Patient education requires assessment of the patient first for the nurse to know what the patient requires. Patients with negative attitudes affect the nurses/physicians attitude on teaching. Communication styles used by the health care provider to communicate with the patient’s family and the patient, affects the teaching process.

These factors affect the outcome of leaning leading to effects on patient compliance too. All the mentioned factors may reduce or increase patient compliance depending on the effect on the patient (Falvo, 2004). 2. Examples of psychosocial factors that that affect the patient are: Beliefs, knowledge, morals, traditions, customs and habits. These factors affect the way a patient perceives a disease or a health problem, the treatment methods used by physicians, the reactions to different types of illnesses, people’s attitudes and willingness to learn (Falvo, 2004).

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All these factors affect patient education either negatively or positively. A patient with knowledge about his/her disease for example, easily accepts more teaching about his treatment than one without knowledge. A patient’s positive attitude encourages patient education while negative attitude affects the process of learning hence affects patient compliance (Falvo, 2004). 3. Personality styles and approaches that could be used to help the patient: Personality style is how an individual’s characteristics are arranged to define his/her personality.

Personality is an organized set of personal behavior and traits which includes characteristics such as attitude, modes of thought, impulses feelings, responses, strivings, actions and several others. Personality style is therefore the pattern taken by ones psychological functioning to show specific characteristics or react differently in different situations. Examples of approaches that could be used to help the patient include: The use of questionnaires demanding specific answers that classify a personality, objective tests, ratings and projective tests.

Questionnaires look for people’s answers to certain questions that the psychologists think will produce a certain reaction in an individual, proving an individual has a specific personality. Ratings look for people’s behavior when compared to a standard behavior for measuring a specific trait. Objective tests also use specific behaviors to classify someone under a specific personality and projective tests assess people’s feelings and perceptions through making individuals write stories about pictures they are shown (Lahey, 2007).

All these methods have standard measures of looking at people’s personalities. 4. List the steps in adjustment to illness and how the patient copes with each of each step. Steps in adjustment to illness and how the patients cope in each stage: Adjustment to illness differs in each individual but the basic steps observed in most people are: Isolation and denial, Anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. In Opposition to illness (Isolation and denial, Anger), the patient fights to overcome the illness, he/she uses the resources available to defeat the effects of the illness.

Active denial is observed in this stage. Another step in adjustment to illness is reduced participation in social life (bargaining) which may be due to severity of the illness. The patient loses normal family life, leisure activities and even his/her job. Complementary relation of the patient to the illness is the next step in the adjustment to illness and involves patients accepting their condition and living with it (acceptance) (Radley, 1994). 5.

The health professional’s role in teaching the patients: The health care professional should ensure effective patient education therefore should understand the patients according to their ages. The approaches used to teach a child with cancer for example, cannot used to teach an adult patient with the same disease. The health care professional has to understand the patients based on the developmental process (Falvo, 2004). 6. The role of the family in patient Education: The family of a patient in most cases provides care to the patient.

In patient education however, communication with the physician is important. Since they are the care givers, their perception on the illness their patient suffers from and their reaction to the illness plays a very important role in patient education. The nurse or the physician needs such kind of perception to conduct an assessment before providing patient education. They determine the kind of education to be offered. The family has to cooperate with the nurse in order to decide on a mutual goal for the care of the patient (Falvo, 2004).

7. How might the family influence the compliance of the patient and what measures can the health care professional use in communication with the family? Families act as caregivers to the patient. If the family disagrees with a treatment method for example, the patient ma feel unsafe and not comply with the requirements of treatment. Financial status of the family also affects the compliance of the patient. If the drugs ordered for the patient to use are of high cost, compliance to treatment method may not be easy.

The health care professional should make sure that there is an understanding between him and the family of the patient about the decisions on treatment regarding the patient (Falvo, 2004). Falvo, D. R. (2004). Effective Patient Education: a Guide to Increased Compliance New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Lahey, B. B. (2007). Personality Assessment Methods. (Ed. 9). Psychology: An Introduction. (pp 480-520). New York: McGraw-Hill. Radley, A. (1994). Making Sense of Illness: The Social Psychology of Health and Disease. UK: SAGE.