Comenius (1592-1670)
Books with illustrations, education with the senses, social reform
Locke (1632-1714)
tabula rasa (the belief that a child is born with a clean slate), acceptance of individual differences, in giving children reasons as the basis for helping children to learn
Rousseau (1772-1778)
free play, the belief in children’s inherent goodness and ability to choose what they need to learn, using concrete rather than abstract materials
Pestalozzi (1746-1827)
integration of the curriculum and group teaching
Froebel (1782-1852)
father of kindergarten, developed the first educational toys, believed that adult’s role is to plant ideas and materials for children to use as they grow at their own pace
Montessori (1870-1952)
a prepared environment, self-correcting and sequential materials, teaching based on observation, and a trust in children’s innate drive to learn
Steiner (1861-1925)
Waldorf School of Education, the people with whom the child interacts are of central importance, life has 3 periods; the will(0-7years), the heart or feelings(7-14) and the head or a fusion of the spirit and the body
Dewey (1858-1952)
believed that schools should focus on the nature of the child, child-oriented schools
Patty Hill Smith (1868-1946)
wrote “Happy Birthday”, founded NAEYC, promoted nursery schoools for children too young to attend kindergarten, laboratory schools
Lucy Sprague Mitchell (1878-1967)
developed the idea of schools as community centers, established Bank Street College of Education, the education of young children and the study of how children learn are intrinsically tied together
Kaiser Child Care Centers
Offered child care for working mothers during WWII

S. Neill (1883-1973)

most famous proponent of the “free/natural school” movement
Head Start
began in 1965, a program aimed at providing educational, social, medical, dental, nutritional and mental health services to pre-school children
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
a person is influenced by his early life in fundamental and dramatic ways, early experiences shape the way people live and behave as adults
Arnold Gesell (1880-1952)
maturation theory
T. Berry Brazelton (1918- )
developed the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (known as “the Brazelton”) to assess newborns
Benjamin Spock (1903-1998)
children can learn to direct themselves rather than needing to be constantly disciplined
The McMillan Sisters
their concern extended beyond education to medical and dental care, their theory of fresh air, sleep and bathing proved successful
Susan Isaacs (1885-1948)
interpreted Freud’s theory for teachers and provided guidance for how schools could apply this new knowledge of the unconscious to the education of children, influence felt in schools whose philosophy emphasizes the child’s point of view and the notion of play as the child’s work
The Progressive Education Movement
1) We must recognize individual needs and individual differences in children 2) Teachers must be more attentive to the needs of children3) Children learn best when that are highly motivated and have a genuine interest in the material4) Learning via rote memory is useless to children5) The teacher should be aware of the child’s total development-social, physical,intellectual and emotional6) Children learn best when they have direct contact with the material
Reggio Emilia
child guided curriculum, the project approach, respect for children’s work and creavity and its total community support
Themes in Early Childhood
1) Ethic of Social Reform2) Importance of Childhood3) Transmitting Values4) Professionalism
Emotional Framework 
Setting the tone and mood of the classroom. This is done with body movements, by the tone of voice, facial expressions or lack of them and non-verbal as well as verbal gestures.
Understanding and accepting yourself. It will make a difference in the way teachers relate to children.