Strategic locations are places Important to those with the power to make or break you. It thus follows that external trends, not local efforts, will always decide which locations thrive. ” Does the rise of regional hubs from Appealing to Amelia confirm or refute this theory? The Malay world first acquired high strategic value because Improvements in shipping technology made seaborne trade more efficient than shorter land-based routes.

Combined with the increase in demand for goods traded over long distances for which the land-based routes could not support, this lead to the shift in trade from he Silk Road and trans-Isthmian routes to sea routes such as the Cape of Good Hope With time and experience, there was an Improvement of the knowledge of winds and narrow waters which makes sea transport much safer and more efficient. As such we can see that all of the factors above confirms that external influences made the Malay world’s waterways economically strategic.

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Zooming closer, Appealing rose to become the first dominant hub In the Malay world because its rulers had enough military power to impose exclusive access to Tang China. Unlike Sung dynasty, Tang China reactive highly restricted trade that didn’t allow Chinese merchants to venture overseas to trade. They declined in strategic value because Sung China began to liberalize trade, denying Appealing exclusive rights. This Is further aggravated by Chula Indian’s raid which gravely diminished Gravity’s military presence. As such, this lead to other Javanese kingdoms rising to challenge the weakened Gravity’s hold of power.

As such we can see that the external trends were actually conditionally conducive to trade for Survivals when they held exclusive and dominance trade and litany power: Internal factors soul plays a crucial role when external factors plays out equally favorable to all. After Paleness’s decline, Tamales became strategic as Yuan China, much like Sung, practiced open trade, to which Tamales stood out though comparative advantages In providing superior merchandises In high demand such as horn bills, Jacques and possibly also due to the well-fortified location, providing security for trade.

Its founder, also saw the potential of Tamales and transformed it from a harbor into a port, attracting followers and commerce. Tamales rose pretty much by its my once external factors conditionally primed the Malay world to be strategic, to which the external factors exerted Its Influence again when Mining China started practicing restricted trade, favoring Amelia, where Teammates Raja also fled to, obtaining Mining protection from Siamese and Javanese harassment.

Internal factors could no longer sway the strategies, whoever took over Tamales could not compete with Amelia, neither did the old Raja relocate Its chief hub back to Tamales after re-acquiring it. Amelia rose once again due external actors in which Mining favored Amelia in its restricted trade policies and provided impressive military presence. Through the rise and the fall of the regional hubs, we can see that external trends have a heavy Influence over which location thrives. However, most external factors exerts their Influence over the large part of the Malay world, not just one specific location.

Thus internal efforts contributes to the success 1 OFF AT ten ports, approver ten external trends are In your Devour. However, tender Is little help that internal trends can provide when external influences works against you. The information we now have on 14th century Tamales/Singapore has now decisively extended Singapore history back to around 1299. ” Do you agree with this assertion? The Sahara Malay claimed that the stone was thrown by Badland the Strongman across the Singapore River and the boom guarding the river during the asses was still in existence at the time of its writing.

However, the overall characteristics of the Sahara Malay did not warrant its serious consideration as an accurate historical account without extensive corroboration from a variety of sources and physical evidence. Many key details were contradicted by Portuguese accounts such as the Sums Oriental. The British knew that they were not the first to create a strategic hub on Singapore because of they discovered the Old Malay Lines of Singapore – a rampart running from the coast along Stamford Road up the side of Fort Canning Hill.

John Crawford also found the foundation stones for religious building similar to those found intact in Java on the Fort Canning Hill. Raffles also read the Sahara Malay, confirming his suspicions of Fort Canning Hill as the place of residence of the kings of the old Malay. The Bat Bellary found at the current Labrador Park is a sail-shaped rock used for navigation purposes before 1819. The British also found the Singapore Stone, a tall sandstone structure with Indict writing at the mouth of the Singapore River.

As such The British found more than enough solid evidence to know that Malay legends regarding old Tamales were not merely fictional accounts. We know that the 14th century Tamales was relatively prosperous because there was evidence of economic zoning and unusually strong fortifications for a Malay settlement of its era. In addition, items similar to those recovered by archaeologist in Singapore were also found buried in the Aria Islands. Very rare artifacts from this time period were recovered in archaeological digs supporting the accounts in the Daddy while and Sahara Malay.

Nobody knows for sure who the founder of the 14th century Tamales was, giving this part of Singapore past a feel of an unconfirmed legend. However, history is the study of the past events occurred, it is important to have a clear identity of key figures, however it is not the crux of the study of history. Sometimes, the leader’s achievement could very well define who these key figures were without having a name. Singapore history dates back far beyond 1299, it always, have.

History simply does not vanish from existence simply because scholars refuse to study them. By simply extending our study of Tamales beyond Raffles arrival in 1819 to 1299, there is already much that we can gather about the old Tamales. Much of Singapore characteristics remains similar to that of old Tamales, to which we can draw lessons from history. As such, Singapore history dates back to around 1299 or even beyond so long as we actively study and gather evidences for history of the old Tamales, in the spirit of good scholarship.