* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team
Trained the others.
In the 1950s and 60s what was the behaviorist influence on ID?
B.F. Skinner and Programmed Instruction; start with basics and then shape behavior. Give rewards for correct answers. In 1960s Mager developed Behavioral Objectives.
1934 Ralph Tyler influenced ID how?
In an 8 year study he found stated objectives to be vague and said they should be stated as behavioral outcomes. This was good for evaluating efficacy of ID.
Timeline 1956 Bloom?
taxonomy of educational objectives within cognitive domain; there are various types of learning outcomes.
Criterion referenced testing’s relationship to ID?
CRT is central to ID in determining entry-level behavior and in determining the extent of learned behaviors as a result of encountering an ID project/lesson. CRT=graded on task & how well you perform.
Norm referenced testing:
graded on how you perform in comparison to others. CRT = graded on your performance.
1965 Gagne’s Conditions of Learning describes 5 domains of learning outcomes. What are they?
Verbal informationIntellectual skillsCognitive strategiesAttitudeMotor skills (psycho motor skills)
What are Gagne’s 9 events of instruction?
Gain attention.Inform learners of objectives.Stimulate prior learning.
Present the stimulus.Provide learning guidance.Elicit performance (practice)Provide feedbackAssess performanceEnhance retention and transfer.GISP PEFAR
1957 Sputnik! impact on ID
S. poured millions of $$ into education developing science instruction. Instructional materials were developed without formative evaluation being conducted. Later it was discovered that the instructional materials were not effective.
Michael Scriven (1967)
Scriven pointed out the need to try out drafts of instructional materials with learners prior to the final form being delivered. He coined the term “formative evaluation” and contrasted it with what he called “summative evaluation”= the testing of materials after they are in their final form.
Beginning interest in systems approach to ID began in 1970s.
1975 the U.
S. military adopted an ID model., 1980s military & education & buisness adopted systems approach. there was a growing interest in cognitive psychology, PCs & ID together.
an adjective for experience-based techniques that help in problem solving, learning and discovery. A heuristic method is used to rapidly come to a solution that is hoped to be close to the best possible answer, or ‘optimal solution’. A heuristic as a noun is a “rule of thumb”, an educated guess, an intuitive judgment or simply common sense.
A heuristic is a general way of solving a problem. Heuristics as a noun is another name for heuristic methods.In more precise terms, heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible, though loosely applicable, information to control problem solving in human beings and machines.
What do instructional designers do?
ID practitioners are not limited to the design, development and use of media. Their responsibilities also include analyzing learning & performance problems, designing, developoing, iplementing and evaluating both instructional and non-instructiona processes/resources/solutions to improve learning and performance in either educational settings or the workplace.
Why should ID professionals be concerned with emerging technologies?
New media could bring about changes in theory and practice in ID. Professionals benefit from investigating the history of media and ID are likely to understand the development of the field and have a positive impact on future developments.
Why should ID practitioners care about epistemological perspectives and design frameworks?
ID practitioners need to employ a systems approach where determining the learning goals and objectives have utmost importance.
Why is a eclectic approach to ID important to practitioners?
Even though learning theories seem to compete with one another in their psychological perspectives regarding learning all are valuable for instructional design.
They all have the same goal but use different paths. IDers can benefit from the advantages of all theories applied to specific learning contexts.
Why do ID professionals need to know learning theories and the implications for instructional design?
ID professionals need to justify their applications with principles and assumptions supported by established human learning theory.
What is the role/impact of motivation in instructional design?
Motivation can be influenced by external events. Instructional designs are external and can be used to influence motivation. When developing and designing instruction it is important to remember that the goal is to engage individuals in learning and working to promote transfer.
Design is not merely for entertainment.
How does engagement with Human Performance Technology impact ID?
The field of ID is moving toward HPT so practitioners need to understand all factors influencing human performance so they can be applied to improve performance. Motivation to learn, motivation to work and self-motivation are key components in human learning theory.
HPT activities need to be justified with grounded theory principles and assumptions.
IDT historical timeline:
1900s=visualsPre-1920: testing movement1920s: behavioral objectives movement1940s: Instructional media and R1950s: Programmed instruction: task analysis and comm theory & sys theory1960s: cognitive movement and formative eval1970s: ID Models: needs assessment, instructional systems1980s: web, CBI; EPSS, PT
Naming the field: Instruction:
Instruction is defined as the delivery of focused educational experiences leading toward a particular learning goal.James Finn, Donald Ely & Robert Heinich are responsible for defining the field of IT.
Name of the field: associated organization
in 1970 the Dept. of Audiovisual Instrution of the Nat. Ed.
Assoc. changed its name to Assoc. for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT).
Ely (1972) once described Ed Tech as:
a field involved in the facilitation of human learning through the systematic identification, development, organization and utilization of a full range of learning resources and through the management of these processes.It is the application of our scientific knowledge about human learning to the practical tasks of teaching and learning.
IDT’s foundations are found in the following theories:
Behavior learning theory – B.G. Skinner (1938, 1968, 1987)Cognitive information-processing theory- Atkinson & Shriffin (1968)Situated learning theory- Kirshner & Whitson (1997)Gagne’s theory of instruction (1972, 1985, 1996)Constructivism – Cognition & Technology group at Vanderbilt (1991).
Epistemology & the design of learning environments: implications
Epistemology is the nature of knowledge & understanding.
Cognitive structures change through the processes of adaptation: assimilation and accommodation.
Jean Piaget’s theory relating to cognitive structures:
Cognitive structures are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie specific acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development.
Grounded Design: re: epistemology and the design of learning environments. (Hannifin, Hannifin, Land & Oliver)
“The systematic implementation of procedures that are rooted in established theory and research in human learning” Hannafin, Hannifin, Land & Oliver (1997).
Talk about the foundations for motivation and performance:
Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivation:*Attention: perceptual arousal with use of novel, surprising, incongruous events.*Relevance: Emphasize relevance within the instruction.Confidence: Allow students to develop confidence by providing feedback.
Elicit performance.*Satisfaction: provide opportunity to use newly acquired knowledge or skills in a real or simulated environment.
Is Learning style secondary to instructional goals?
Learning style is secondary to instructional goals in selecting fundamental components of instructional strategy appropriate for and consistent with a given learning goal. Learning style should be considered in selecting instructional style and adjusting the parameters of a given instructional strategy. Merrill (2002).
What is DAvid H. Jonassen’s impact on ID?
He introduced the integration of problem solving into instructional design. Re: a problem is something unknown and it will result in value once the answer is identified.
ID in Business and Industry
EPSS and Rapid Prototyping and popular ID models used in Business.
ID in Medical Field:
PBL (problem based learning is a popular ID model used in the medical field.
What are some evolving trends in ID?
asynchronous vs. synchronous learning tasks and understanding learning outcomes and the learning environment.