I. IntroductionAccording to the National Institute of Mental Health(2016), in lives, sadness and anxiety are things that people all suffer fromtime to time, but these emotions often pass as time flies and are reffered toas normal reactions to challenging times in life. However, when people arediagnosed with Depressive Disorder (DD), it is hard for them to overcome theblue mood or continual feelings of sadness and worthlessness, as well as a lackof keenness in formerly enjoyable pastimes and activities (National Instituteof Mental Health, 2015).
Depressive Disorder (DD) is a type of mental illnessthat leads to the modification in emotions, thoughts, behavior as well asphysical health. (Fekadu, 2017). This disease isvery common and serious with its power to steal a person’s ability to takeinterest in life and perform even the simplest daily chores (Fedaku, 2017). Fora long time, this disorder has not received wide regconition andacknowledgement.
Fortunately, scientists are paying attention to tackling thechronic disease nowadays as they have made great progress in finding treatmentsfor this illness. This research paper is aimed at providing more knowledge topeople about DD, including its symptoms, causes, effects and treatments for DDpatients.II. Discussionof findings1. The symptoms of Depressive DisorderDepression is a mood disorder which results in dreadfulsymptoms that may exert strong influences on the way you feel, behave, thinkand perform everyday’s tasks, namely sleeping, working and eating (NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2016). Depression often begins at the outset ofadulthood, with a high frequency of reoccurences (Cesar, 2013).People who are undergoing those signs and symptoms for a fortnight period may sufferfrom depression. First of all, they are likely to experience the seveve feelingof sadness or grief (Bhowmik, 2012).
Usually, sadness is something weovercome easily with the passage of time; however, DD patients will suffer frompersistent sadness, anxiousness and “empty mood” (National Institute of MentalHealth, 2016). Moreover, one of the most dominant symptoms of DD isthe loss of keenness and interest in pastimes and recreational activities (NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2015). It seems like people with DD have no pleasureor happiness in their lives, nothing can cheer them up even the things theyonce had feelings for in the past (Berry, 2016). Besides, DD patients usually have negative thinkingabout themselves, their current circumstances and their prospects in the future(The Irish Association of Suiciology, 2016). They often feel like they have novalue or they will not be successful at anything, they are even unable to seethe positive characteristics in themselves (Berry, 2016). Last but not least, people with DD have troubleconcentrating (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015). It is only a faint possibility that DDpatients can focus or concentrate well on any type of decision-making tasks oreven daily activities such as reading, listening and watching (Berry, 2016).
Not everyone experiences the same symptoms. Thosesigns above are only the most common ones when people suffer from DD (NationalIstitute of Health, 2015). Along with those aforementioned signs and symptoms,many others may occur to people coming down with this illness, for instance,fatigue, exhaustion, or even the constant thought of suicide (NationalInstitute of Health, 2016).
2. The causes of Depressive DisorderIn terms of the causes of DD, it is essential toknow that DD is not resulted from one particular thing, but from a mixture ofdifferent factors and reasons. Several people with DD, notably BipolarDepression and Major Depressive Disorder, seem to have a biological susceptibilitythat can be inherited in families (Bhowmik, 2012). Family history of depressionis one of the causes of DD. Perris et al.
(1982) put forward a theory thatpatients who have a family history record clear of depression would less likelyto be affected genetically (Monroe, 2014). However, there is still no solidevidence on whether people inherited a vulnerability to these diseases or it isthe environment and personal history are the culprits (Bhowmik, 2012). Moreover, major life events can also result indepression. Stressful life events such as the death of loved ones, divorce, joblos, especially childhood emotional abuse, have been persistently connectedwith a rise in depression symptoms (Mazure, 1998, as cited in Shapero, 2014).Individuals who have a history of emotional abuse may face greater risk ofdepression when they encounter stressful life events. In fact, emotional abusehas been correlated with negative feelings of humilation, self-pity, anger,self-worthlessness; thus, those who suffer from early emotional abuse havenegative conception about themselves in adulthood (Shapero, 2014).
Besides, there is a relation between depression andpersonality traits. According to several studies, neuroticism (the usualfeeling of worry and nervous) is perhaps in the biggest conjunction withdepression (Junni, 2017). For example, in the case of older Korean immigrants,they had to go through hardships due to political and economical difficultiesin South Korea back then, and they nurtured American dream with the hope ofachieving better lives. However, the attempts to adjust to the language andcultural differences have put them in stressful situations, leading toneuroticism and ultimately depression as they often feel isolated, hopeless andstressful (Kim, 2016). 3. The influence of DepressiveDisorder on peopleDepression exerts strong impacts on people in manydistinctive ways.
DD patients may experience physical impacts such as weightloss or overweight, sleep deprivation, aches, severe pains and so on. However,depression can also lead to sophisticated cognitive alterations. The ability tothink, make decisions and memorize things is likely to be impaired, yourcognitive adjustability and executive functioning can also be lowered (Cartreine,2016). In addition, suicide may be the common associationwith mental illness, specifically with DD (De Leo, 2014). Over the lifetime, people with untreateddepression are more vulnerable to the risk of suicide, at round 20% (Gotlib andHammen, 2002, as cited in Romero, 2014). Approximately two-thirds of people whoend their lives are considered to be depressed at the moment of their deaths(American Assiociation of Suicidology, 2012, as cited in Romero, 2014) and a largenumber of depressive episodes have shown a correlation with the number ofsuicide efforts.
Furthermore, suicide attempts appear in the beginning ofdepression course, following with a high possibility of reattempting rightafter the first effort (Crona, 2013).4. The treatments for DepressiveDisorderDepression is a treatable disorder with reliable diagnosticmethods (Marcus, 2012).
Treatments can bring about a good opportunity for DDpeople to overcome the illness gradually, the sooner treatment starts, the moreefficient it becomes (National Institute of Health, 2015).Firstly, one of the most common treatments istalking to the doctor or psychological advisors. According to the NationalInstitute of Health (2015), how effectively you and your doctor communicatewith each other is one of the most significant parts of receiving better healthcare. Heaversedge (2014) claimed that by talking to your advisor, you can askany questions related to your feelings, thoughts and behavior, which may helpyou to gain more knowledge about what you are experiencing and what support isthere to help you through this. The author also remarked that doctor will giveyou useful advice on what you can do to change your habits and lifestyle inorder to make an improvement in your mental health.Additionally, using antidepressant medications isanother useful method for treating depression. Antidepressant medications canbe very useful, especially for people with modest-severe depression (Marcus,2012).
They may assist your brain by utilising certain chemical substances thatcan control mood and stress. There are various kinds of antidepressants such asselective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA),…(NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2015). Although antidepressants may have sideeffects, they tend to fade away over time. Reporting any side effects that youare suffering from to your doctor and advisor, or at least you have to rememberto consult with your health care supplier before stop talking antidepressants (NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2016). Last but not least, you can get through depressionyourself.
In other words, self-help is of great importance to aid people withdepression (Marcus, 2012). DD patients can try to be dynamic by doing exercisesregularly, according to Cleare et al. 2015, physical activities and exercisesare considered as possible treatments for DD (Schuch, 2016).
For example,people who do aerobic exercises 3 times a week may see a great decline indepressive symptoms and signs (Blumentah, 2012), or try to engage in severalactivities they once felt pleasurable. Besides, spending time with someone youlove and confide in can be a good way to treat depression, do not separateyourself and let your loved-ones help you. Always bear in mind that you are notalone (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015). III. ConclusionThis research paper aims at providing some of thefacts behind DD. DD sufferers have to go through stressful lives, withpersistent sadness, blue mood, loss of interest in hobbies and recreationalactivities. To mitigate the strong effects of DD, it is crucial to providesuitable treatments for DD patients.
Primary health care such as doctorconsultation or antidepressants are of great importance in treating DD;however, support from friends, loved-ones and their communities also plays animportant role in helping DD patients remedy this illness. Undoubtedly, thesetreatments take a great amount of time and efforts of DD sufferers, theirfamilies as well as the society but they can bring better lives for DD patients.