– prereading strategy designed to activate students’ knowledge about a topic and provide purpose for reading. Students are asked to react to teacher-prepared statements designed to focus their attention on the topic to be learned. Provides a purpose by serving as a guide for subsequent reading.
A word opposite in meaning to another word.
textbooks designed to be used at specific grade levels as a comprehensive instructional program. Designed to teach reading skills and comprehension.
Activity or technique to encourage the creative generation of ideas — usually a group process, in which group members contribute suggestions in a spontaneous, noncritical manner
A whole group or class oral reading method in which the teacher reads with the students.
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Allows the teacher to lead by example. The teacher might use a slightly faster pace and louder voice to direct the students in correct pronunciation and emphasis.
The ability to understand spoken or written information.
There is little consensus in the research literature on what constitutes a comprehension strategy. 1. in reading, a systematic sequence of steps for understanding text, as in the SQ3$ study method (Robinson, 1946).
2. (pl) a.any of these steps used singly or in combination to attain comprehension. b. teaching techniques such as mapping, tree diagramming, etc.
, used to help students become strategic readers.
– visual representations that help students organize information from any learning experience (diagram, map, chart, graphs, graphic organizer)
Emotional associaitons suggested by the primary meaning of a lexical unit.
the sound, word, or phrases adjacent to a spoken or written language unit; linguistic environment. 2.
the social or cultural situation in which a spoken or written message occurs.
– the process in which the chief elements are prediction and verification (Stauffer, 1969). In the prereading stage, students set their own purposes for reading by making predictions; during reading, they verify their predictions; and in the postreading discussion stage, they check their verifications.
relationship between a linguistic and its referent, as book denotes the object.
Directed Listening/Thinking Activity (DL/TA)
– the process in which the chief elements are prediction and verification (Stauffer, 1969).
In the prereading stage, students set their own purposes for reading by making predictions; during reading, they verify their predictions; and in the postreading discussion stage, they check their verifications. Not reading but listening.
Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
Teacher-guided reading activity — usually includes the following steps: readiness, concept development, silent reading, discussion, and reinforcement of new skills and concepts.
The history of words or the study thereof.
The etymology of a word includes its root, its language of origin, and any changes it might have gone through before arriving at its current form.
Drop Everything and Read
A specified time during which everyone in a classroom (including all instructors) chooses books that interest them and reads silently for a designated period
Expository Text (Exposition)
. one of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing intended to set forth or explain.
Note: Good exposition is clear in conception, well organized, and understandable. It may include limited amounts of argumentation, description, and narration to achieve this purpose.
imaginative narrative in any form of presentation that is designed to entertain
– language enriched by word images and figures of speech.
the clear, easy written or spoken expression of ideas. 2.
freedom from word-identification problems that might hinder comprehension in silent reading or the expression of ideas in oral reading; automaticity. 3. the ability to produce words or larger language units in a limited time interval. Note: This type of fluency is often tested in a comprehensive reading diagnosis.
4. the ability to execute motor movements smoothly, easily, and readily
The Four Square is a learning activity to develop and increase a student’s vocabulary knowledge by making a personal connection with words.
The phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic description of both the language’s structure and its evolution over time. The morphology and syntax of a language.
a fictional story that is presented in comic-strip format and published as a book
contains a picture or schematic diagram of the important words in the chapter and discusses with the students how these words relate to each other
; reading instruction in which the teacher provides the structure and purpose for reading and for responding to the material read
– a word with the same spelling as another word, whether or not pronounce alike, as tear (crying) and tear (to rip)
a word with different origin and meaning but the same oral or written form as one or more other words, as bear (an animal) vs. bear (to support) vs. bare(exposed)., or row (to propel a boat) vs. row (a line) vs. row(a brawl).
Note: In this sense,
Words that sound the same, but are spelled differently and have different meanings (e.g., “ate/eight”; “they’re/their/ there”).
A phrase or expression in which the meaning cannot be determined based on the literal interpretation of the words (e.
g., “it’s raining cats and dogs”).
Questions which require the reader to draw conclusions and make connections using information stated in the text.
Interactive Read Aloud
“A teaching context in which students are actively listening and responding to an oral reading
a. a strategy developed by Donna Ogle that is especially useful for identifying purposed for reading exposition text. Note: The term derives from What I know, What I want to learn, and What I have learned.
– same strategy as KWL with the plus being asking students to categorize the information they recorded in the L (what I have learned ) column
. an approach to language learning in which students’ oral compositions are transcribed and used as materials of instruction for reading, writing, speaking, and listening; experience approach. 2. A curriculum that emphasizes the interrelationship of such modes of language experience.
that part of a literature-based reading program in which students meet to discuss books they are reading independently.
Note: The books discussed are usually sets of the same title, sets of different titles by one author, or sets of titles with a common theme.
Questions in which the answer is stated or clearly implied in text or speech.
The central purpose or gist of a passage; the primary message expressed by a passage. The main idea of a paragraph may be explicitly stated in a topic sentence.
Conventions in writing are the rules and guidelines taught to students for the development of their writing skills. The conventions are divided into three categories: grammar, punctuation, and usage.
Mastery of writing conventions is an important component of student education for several reasons; as examples, students may be graded on writing in classes outside of English class and writing conventions are a crucial aspect of communication skills.
. awareness and knowledge of one’s mental processes such that one can monitor, regulate, and direct them to a desired end; self-mediation. Note: Studies such as those by Paris et al. (1983) suggest that one’s attitudes and beliefs are involved in metacognition.
These are strategies that can be taught to students to help them actively think about and have control over their reading and learning. Such strategies include self-assessment and self-regulation.
a figure of speech in which comparison is implied but not stated (Sun is a Yellow Balloon)
a meaningful linguistic unit that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful elements, as the word book, or that is a component of a word, as s in books
in general, a story, actual or fictional, expressed orally or in writing. 2. specifically, “an expression of event-based experiences that are either: a.
stored in memory or cognitively constructed, b. selected by the teller/writer to transmit to the audience/reader, or c. organized in knowledge structures that can be anticipated by the audience” (Graesser et al., 1991) Note: In this research-oriented definition, the familiar components of character, plot, etc., are considered extraneous. 3. referring to such a story or set of events and experiences.
prose designed primarily to explain, argue, or describe rather than to entertain; specifically, a type of prose other than ficiton, but including biography and autobiography.
using slashes or extra spaces to mark thought units in material to be read, as The Man Walked//into the room. Used to help with fluency.
. A strategy that gives students an auditory or visual stimulus to bring up or create background knowledge on a topic before learning about it in class. It begins with ‘Tell me anything that comes to mind when you see this picture…”
Process or act of foretelling future events, conditions, outcomes, or trends on the basis of current information.
The process of looking through the text before reading; usually led by the teacher and includes looking at pictures, headings, questions, vocabulary, etc.
– the pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm patterns of spoken language
Question-Answer Relationship (QAR)
provides a systematic approach for analyzing task demands using: text implicit and explicit and script implicit – “right there,” “think and search,” “author and me,” and “on my own”. Enhances ability to answer comprehension questions (Elliott, 2000
Questioning The Author (QtA)
Teachers collaborate with students by helping them develop an understanding of text through the use of questions which look at the clarity and accuracy of the author’s writing. ie. What is the author trying to say here? Does the author explain this clearly
A read aloud is a planned oral reading of a book or print excerpt, usually related to a theme or topic of study. The read aloud can be used to engage the student listener while developing background knowledge, increasing comprehension skills, and fostering critical thinking.
A read aloud can be used to model the use of reading strategies that aid in comprehension
the ease of comprehension of text
– that part of a literature-based reading program in which students engage in reading and responding to trade books, including small-group discussions with the teacher to learn or review key concepts about reading and literature.
The speed at which an individual can read and comprehend what is read.
students ask their own questions about what they reading. Students develop metacognitive strategies by learning how to ask their own questions; students adopt inquiring attitude about reading, develop purpose for reading (Elliot, 2000).
– metacognitive strategy in which students are involved in summarizing, question generating, clarifying and predicting as they read texts. Both teacher and students share.
– the act of combining basic sentences into more complex sentences – a rewriting skill (O’Hare, 1973) ie. We went to the store. We went to Grandma’s. We ate dinner.
– We went to the store, and then to Grandma’s where we ate dinner.
a generalized description, plan, or structure, as a schema of the reading process. 2. a system of cognitive structures stored in memory that are abstract representation of events, objects, and relationships in the world.
3. in Piagetion theory, an image representing reality that is held in thought but not transformed through thought
Semantic Feature Analysis
in vocabulary instruction, the use of grid or matrix with target words on the vertical axis and possible features or attributes on the horizontal axis to determine relevant meaning relationships
Semantic organizers are a specific form of graphic organizer with a central term in the center, and related terms and concepts appearing on web-like line branching outward.
The study of meaning in language
an early childhood instructional strategy in which the teacher involves a group of young children in the reading of a particular big book in order to help them learn aspects of beginning literacy, as print conventions and the concept of word, and develop reading strategies, as in decoding or the use of prediction.
Silent Sustained Reading
A time during the school day when every child and adult in a classroom, or even the whole school, stops what they are doing and reads books of their own choosing silently for a specified period of time. Research literature does not support the use of this or any of the variations of this method.
Comparison of 2 things usually using like or as.
– a prereading writing activity that involves students’ using key concepts from a story to develop their own story or impressions of how these key concepts might fit together.
– in text analysis, a formal device or grammar used for specifying relations among episodes in a story and to formulate rules for generating other stories
A study strategy designed to guide students in their comprehension of a reading. Students are instructed to survey the chapter headings, captions, and other information set apart from the main text, form questions based on the survey, read through the whole text, orally recite questions about the reading, and review the reading over the next few days. A variation called SQ4R adds reflect as a final step.
Words that have similar meanings (e.g., couch and sofa).
– the combining of parts or elements so as to form a whole. In the sense of reading, combining information from two sections of text, to form a more complete understanding of a concept
Teaching Vocabulary in Context (TVC)
Context clues are words and phrases in a sentence which help you reason out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
Oftentimes you can figure out the meanings of new or unfamiliar vocabulary by paying attention to the surrounding language. The table below gives the types of clues, signals and examples of each clue.
– the various patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text. Note: Common patterns of text structure are expository, cause-effect, comparison-contrast, problem-solution, description, and sequence.
in literacy instruction, a strategy in which the teacher verbalizes what she is thinking while reading a selection orally, thus modeling the process of comprehension.
a book intended for sale to the general public.
The growth of a person’s stock of known words and meanings. 2. The teaching-learning principles and practices that lead to such growth as comparing and classifying word meanings, using context, analyzing word roots and affixes., etc.
Vocabulary Self Collection Strategy (VSS)
– A whole class strategy that involves the students choosing words from the text that they would like to know more about; reading the word in context; giving an informal definitions; and stating the relevance of the word to the study at hand. Students vote on words and use them in a related activity.
Vocabulary Word Cards
A strategy for vocabulary development that involves an index card or paper divided into quadrants. Students will record the word, a definition, a picture or drawing, and a personal association
. a group of words sharing a common phonic element, as / t/ spelled ite in bite, kite, despite, 2. a group of words sharing the same root or base, as phon – in phonemic, phonation, telephone.
a block of school time devoted to student planning, drafting, and editing compositions for publication, often involving peer collaboration
An approach to writing that views it as an ongoing experience that is more than simply sitting down to write.
The writing process includes prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing, each stage of which has its own guidelines and procedures.