A bound (nonword) morpheme that changes the maning or function of a root or stem tow which it is attached, as the prefix or suffix.
is the state of being able to read but being uninterested in doing so Or The repetition of the initial sound of each word in connected text (e.g., “Harry the happy hippo hula-hoops with Henrietta”).
Alphabetic Principle
Words are composed of letters that make sounds.The ideas that letters & Patterns represent the sounds of a spoken language.
Analytic Phonics
Teacher gets children to workout letter sound relationships themselves by presenting them with groups of words containing same sounds.

fox, fish, fun,Whole to part approach to get kids to recoginze words that start with the same letter.

Fluent processing of information that requires little effort or attention as sight word recognition.
A common spelling pattern of consonant, vowel, consonant, such as in the word dog. CVC words can be useful for teaching young children the basics of spelling and phonics because of the short vowel sound.
Consonant Blend
Two or more consecutive consonants that retain their individual sounds (e.

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g., /bl/ in “block”; /str/ in “string”). May also be referred to as a consonant cluster.

Consonant Digraph
a combination of two concosant letters representing a single speech sound, as gn for /n/ in gnat, or gh for /f/ in rough.
The ability to translate thealphabet letters intorecognizable sounds (e.g.,saying /f/ for the letter f) and touse that knowledge to soundout and pronounce words
A vowel sound produced by the tongue shifting position during articulation; a vowel that feels as if it has two parts. The following are examples: ow (as in “low”), ou (as in “loud”), oi (as in “coin”), ie (as in “tie”).
students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English
Embedded Phonics
Preenting groups of words which start or end in the same way.

 Bake, cake, rake, takeblend, black, blank

Emergent Literacy
A view that literacy learning Literacy begins at birth and is encouraged by having children participate early in a range of literacy and language activities. Activities formerly identified as pretend reading and/or scribble writing are now recognized as valid, systematic, important developmental steps through which children move on the way to correct or conventional reading and writing.
to change a message into symbols, as encode oral language into writing, encode an idea into words, encode a physical law into mathematical symbols.
Environmental Print
Print that is all around us: street signs, labels on cans or jars, handwritten notes, etc.
Explicit Instrution
Involves a high level of teacher/student interaction in which the teacher provides clear, unambiguous, direct, and visible explanations to the students. These explanations are concise, specific, and related to the objective.

The ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression. It provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension
a written or printed representation of a phoneme
High frequency words
A small group of words (300-500) that account for a large percentage of the words in print. These words can be referred to as, “sight words,” since automatic recognition of these words is required for fluent reading (e.

g., “the, and, they, said”).

Words that are spelled the same but have different meanings and may or may not have the same pronunciation (e.g.

, “can” as in “metal container” and “can” as in “able to”).

A phrase or expression in which the meaning cannot be determined based on the literal interpretation of the words (e.g., “it’s raining cats and dogs”).

the quality or state of being illiterate; especially : inability to read or write
Implicit Instruction
Students discover skills and concepts on their own instead of being taught these skills explicitly. For example, the teacher provides a list of words that begin with the letter “m” (“mud, milk, meal, mattress”) and then asks the students how the words are similar, rather than telling them that the letter “m” is the beginning letter in all the words.
Language Experience Approach
is an approach to reading instruction based on activities and stories developed from personal experiences of the learner. The stories about personal experiences are written down by a teacher and read together until the learner associates the written form of the word with the spoken.
Knowledge of a word, which means knowing how it is written and how it is pronounced, understanding its meaning, and knowing how to use the word in phrases and sentences.

The smallest meaningful unit of language. A morpheme can be a word (“book, table”) or a part of a word such as a prefix or suffix. For example, the word “unsuccessful” contains three morphemes: “un,” “success,” and “ful”.
Morphology/Strucural Analysis
The patterns of how words are formed from prefixes, roots, and suffixes (e.g., “mis-spell-ing”), and how words are related to each other.
All the sounds in a word thatcome before the first vowel(e.g.

,the /bl/ in the word blank, the/sh/ in the word ship).

A system for representing the sounds of language by written symbols. Including spelling, punctuation, and capitolization.


The smallest unit of sound within our language system. has the ability to change the meanings of a word (e.g.

, changing the first phoneme in “bit” from /b/ to /s/ makes “sit”). English has about 41-44. Words can be composed of (e.g., “a” or “oh”

Phonemic Awareness
is the awareness of the sounds that make up spoken words and is important for learning to read
A way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol-sound relationships, used especially in beginning instruction.
Phonological Awareness
An “umbrella” term that is used to refer to the understanding or insight into different sound structures in language. This term encompasses awareness of individual sounds in words (phonemic awareness) as well as of individual words in sentences, syllables, and onset-rime segments.
in linguistics, the study of the choices of language person make to communicate.

A morpheme that precedes a root word and contributes to or modifies the meaning of the root word (e.g., “re-” in “reprint”).

R-controlled Vowel
Vowels directly preceding the letter r often have slightly modified sounds (for example, car, girl, care, butter). Also known as Vowels or Murmur Diphthongs.
Repeated Reading
When a student is required to re-read a text a number of times until he or she is able to read at a predetermined fluency level.
The first vowel in a word andall the sounds that follow (e.g.

;/ank/ in blank and /ip/ in ship).

A morpheme, often of Latin origin, that may or may not be able to stand alone; it is used to form a family of words with related meanings (e.g., “view” is a word for “preview, review, viewable”).

Refers to the support that is given to students in order to facilitate learning. This support may occur as immediate, specific feedback that a teacher offers during student practice (e.g., giving encouragement or cues, breaking the problem down into smaller steps, using a graphic organizer, or providing an example). may be embedded in the features of the instructional design (starting with simpler skills and building progressively to more difficult skills). Providing the student temporary instructional support assists them in achieving what they cannot accomplish alone.

The vowel sound sometimes heard in an unstressed syllable and most often perceived as the sound “uh” (e.g., asleep, banana).
This term refers to an individual’s knowledge of word meanings.
Synthetic Phonics
Part to whole approach in that they directly teach children the rules of graphemes sound out letters to make whole words.

Technique for learning to identify printed words, also called because it involves looking at a word while saying tit and tracing it.
a voiced speech sound make without stoppage or friciton of the air flow as it passes through the vocal tract.
Vowel Digraphs
Diphthong. Two consecutive vowels that combine to represent a single sound. For example, ea in beach, ai in mail, ou in mouth.

Word Family
Group of words that share a rime (a vowel plus the consonants that follow; e.g., “-ame, -ick, -out”).
Word Sorts
vocabulary-building activity where students arrange groups of words (often connected to a reading) by common characteristics, such as spelling patterns, meaning, or other shared features. help students see connections between words.

Word Study
systematic instruction in phonics spelling and vocabulary at a learner’s instructional level. teaches learners to examine words and study patterns of the English language.
concepts about print
Print awarness which in emerent literacy is a learnier’s growing recognition of conventions and characteristics of a written languages.

concepts of print
Definition found under print awareness which in emergent literacy is a learner’s growing recognition of conventions and and characteristics of a written language. Include such features as the recognition of directionality in reading test.
a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
a wordwiththe same spelling as another word, whether or not pronunced alike as pen ve pen or bow vs bow in a word with the same sound as another word as to, too two there their they’re.
an affix attached to then end of a base, root, or stem that changes meaning or grammatical funtion of the wrd, as en added to ox to form oxen.
in phonology, a minimal unit of seuential speech sounds comprised of a vowel sound or a vowel consonant combination.
Structural Analysis
word recognition strategy to aid pronucation identfying roots, affixs and word parts.