In the
spring of 2011, Northern Syrians began arriving at the Turkish- Syrian border,
and according to UNHCR (Akgündüz, van der Berg,
& Hassink, 2015) by November the number was considerably small- 7,600. Some
Syrian refugees with proofs of identification entered the country as they would
have before, while others took unofficial crossing points with the help of
smugglers (Dinçer
et al., 2013).
Those who had passports were able
to apply for residential permits, while the other ones who lacked documents
were accommodated in temporary refugee camps, GoT had established 22 camps in
10 provinces, near the Syrian border. As depicted in Table 1, the most densely
populated camps are as follows:  Atmeh-
29, 958 people, Bab As- Salame- 15, 000, Bab Al- Hava- 7,000, and Akrabat-
6,000. A downside of the camps near the border is that they are crucial for
Turkey’s national security. ” For example, camp
administrators mentioned the danger of stray bullets flying from the other side
of the border into the camp as the result of regular fighting between
opposition groups taking place just a few miles from the camp” (Dinçer et al., 2013b).

After registration, refugees are provided with monthly cards with cash
between 80 and 100 Turkish Liras per person (40- 50 USD), which allows them to
buy food, minutes for their phones, and use cleaning services (Dinçer
et al., 2013c). The camps are financed and managed by Turkey through
AFAD, and as (McClelland,
2014) states in 2014, they are known for their safety,
cleanliness, hospitality, supermarkets, playgrounds, schools, healthcare
access, and other convenience services. Also, Turkish citizens had made
personal contribution to the refugees (World
Bank Group, 2015).

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However, in 2014 more than 86 per
cent chose to secure their own houses in order to seek better employment
opportunities and became urban refugees in huge cities like S. Urfa, Hatay, and
Istanbul (Özden, 2013). Even though, they
stay out of the camps, the majority prefer to be located nearby as to benefit
the basic services provided by the government of Turkey, which makes them also
hard to reach in regard of registration. There are evidences that majority of them live in poor
neighborhoods, where a lot of people share a single unit, and some locals
charge Syrians higher rents for illegal buildings, consequently increasing the
living costs in the host country (EMPL
COMMITEE).  Moreover, the
limited resources in the centers to such a huge number makes the process of
integrating even more protracting. Furthermore, not being aware of the
opportunities and the market of a particular country makes the integration challenging.

considering age distribution, up to this point the percentage of male refugees
is higher than those of women, (53.2 and 46.8 respectively), and the majority
of refugees are of working age ranging from 18 to 59, 23.3% below 18, and a
minority of less than 3% are over the age of 60 (Government
of Turkey, 2017).