Individual Differences:

Definition:

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Ø  Individual
differences are the differences or variations among the individuals in respect
to one character or number of characteristics.

Ø  Individual
differences stand for those variations which differentiate one individual from
the other. 

Ø  It
is the study of differences in psychological variables among individuals.

 

Explanation:

 

It is understandable
that people are different from one another. But how and why the individuals
differ from each other is not obvious and it is the focus of the study of
Individual differences. Even though to study individual differences appears to
be to study differences, how the individuals are different, central tendency is
also studied in this respect. The main question of individual differences is
whether people are more similar to themselves over time and across situations
than they are to others, and whether the variation within a single person
across time and situation is less than the variation between people

Personality psychology
is the field of psychology which focuses on human nature, unique patterns of
individual differences. Many Researches have been carried out in Individual
Differences. The Methods consisted of laboratory experiments as well as field
studies.

These researches on individual differences reports
three comprehensive questions: 1) developing descriptive catalogue of how individuals
vary; 2) applying variations in one condition to forecast variations in other conditions;
and 3) challenging hypothetical descriptions of the structure and dynamics of
individual differences.

Importance:

The study of Individual differences are vital when we want to describe
how the people vary in their behavior. In different researches, important differences
occurs between individuals. . Individual differences in behavior,
aptitude, cognition or physical factors like the size of body, gender, oldness,
and many other factors can be used and studied in understanding this large
source of variance. People vary not only in their present state, but in the
direction and magnitude of response to the stimulus. This phenomena has placed
the field differential psychology at an significant position.

 

Causes of Individual
Differences:

Following are the causes which brings an individual differences

Heredity:

The inherited traits brings a change in individuals from one
another. An individual’s tallness, size, hair color, face shape ,and whole  body structure is determined by the individual’s
heretical qualities. Differences in intellectual level of individuals are also
influenced by hereditary factor.

Environment:

The environmental effects are those which act upon an
individual, the internal environment during the earlier stages of development
within the womb of mother and later external environment which functions from
the birth time. Social heritage is provided by social psychological environment
in which an individual born. The socio-economic status, family background, the communication
and interaction amongst the members of family and in later years peer relation
and the environment of school creates a diverse conditions to determine the
individual differences.

The individual differences in personality, intelligence,
performance, activities, behaviors, and in life style are brought about by the
environment. Only the physical surrounding is not included in Environment but it
also consists of people, culture, their norms and values and civilizations.

Gender:

Because of gender
variation one individual differs from other. Males are sturdy in intellectual
ability. On the other hand females have small superiority over males in memory,
linguistic ability and aesthetic sense.

 

Age:

Age also brings individual differences. Ability of acquisition
of knowledge and the ability of adjustment naturally increases with age. When
an individual grows he can obtain improved control over feelings and can
perform social responsibilities in a better way.

Education:

Individual differences are also brought about by an education.
There exists a large difference in the behaviors of educated and uneducated individuals.
All the qualities of individuals can be controlled through education.