Individual Differences:Definition:Ø Individualdifferences are the differences or variations among the individuals in respectto one character or number of characteristics.Ø Individualdifferences stand for those variations which differentiate one individual fromthe other. Ø Itis the study of differences in psychological variables among individuals. Explanation: It is understandablethat people are different from one another. But how and why the individualsdiffer from each other is not obvious and it is the focus of the study ofIndividual differences. Even though to study individual differences appears tobe to study differences, how the individuals are different, central tendency isalso studied in this respect.
The main question of individual differences iswhether people are more similar to themselves over time and across situationsthan they are to others, and whether the variation within a single personacross time and situation is less than the variation between peoplePersonality psychologyis the field of psychology which focuses on human nature, unique patterns ofindividual differences. Many Researches have been carried out in IndividualDifferences. The Methods consisted of laboratory experiments as well as fieldstudies.These researches on individual differences reportsthree comprehensive questions: 1) developing descriptive catalogue of how individualsvary; 2) applying variations in one condition to forecast variations in other conditions;and 3) challenging hypothetical descriptions of the structure and dynamics ofindividual differences.Importance:The study of Individual differences are vital when we want to describehow the people vary in their behavior. In different researches, important differencesoccurs between individuals.
. Individual differences in behavior,aptitude, cognition or physical factors like the size of body, gender, oldness,and many other factors can be used and studied in understanding this largesource of variance. People vary not only in their present state, but in thedirection and magnitude of response to the stimulus. This phenomena has placedthe field differential psychology at an significant position.
Causes of IndividualDifferences:Following are the causes which brings an individual differencesHeredity:The inherited traits brings a change in individuals from oneanother. An individual’s tallness, size, hair color, face shape ,and whole body structure is determined by the individual’sheretical qualities. Differences in intellectual level of individuals are alsoinfluenced by hereditary factor.Environment:The environmental effects are those which act upon anindividual, the internal environment during the earlier stages of developmentwithin the womb of mother and later external environment which functions fromthe birth time. Social heritage is provided by social psychological environmentin which an individual born. The socio-economic status, family background, the communicationand interaction amongst the members of family and in later years peer relationand the environment of school creates a diverse conditions to determine theindividual differences.The individual differences in personality, intelligence,performance, activities, behaviors, and in life style are brought about by theenvironment. Only the physical surrounding is not included in Environment but italso consists of people, culture, their norms and values and civilizations.
Gender:Because of gendervariation one individual differs from other. Males are sturdy in intellectualability. On the other hand females have small superiority over males in memory,linguistic ability and aesthetic sense. Age:Age also brings individual differences. Ability of acquisitionof knowledge and the ability of adjustment naturally increases with age. Whenan individual grows he can obtain improved control over feelings and canperform social responsibilities in a better way. Education:Individual differences are also brought about by an education.
There exists a large difference in the behaviors of educated and uneducated individuals.All the qualities of individuals can be controlled through education.