Sensory Memory
The information story that briefly holds stimuli from the environment until they can be processed
Attention
The process of allocating cognitive resources to a stimulus or task at hand
Perception
The cognitive process that gives meaning to sensory input
Working Memory
The memory system of the information processing model where information that has been attended to and perceived is held temporarily and processed
Maintenance rehearsal
Refreshing the information held in working memory by repeating it
Encoding
The cognitive process by which new information is elaborated or organized and saved into long-term memory
Meaningful learning
Making connections between new information and prior knowledge
Elaboration
Expanding on a new idea
Organization
Providing an orderly structure to new information
Retrieval
Pulling information from long-term memory into working memory
Long-term memory
A storage system that can hold large amounts of information for an unlimited amount of time
Metacognition
An individual’s cognition about his/her own knowledge
Dual Processing
Combining visual and auditory information
Wait time
The time given to answer a question
Mnemonics
Strategies to improve memory by encoding simple information in meaningful ways
Chunking
Grouping individual groups of data into meaningful larger units
Forms of Long Term Memory
Implicit knowledgeEpisodic knowledgeDeclaritive knowledgeProcedural knowledgeConceptual knowledgeConditional knowledge
Decay
A hypothesized weakening over time of information stored in long-term memory, especially if the information is used infrequently or not at all.
Retrieval Failure
Failure to pull up a mental record of information that has been previously learned.
Interference
A phenomenon whereby something stored in long-term memory inhibits one’s ability to remember something else correctly.
Reconstruction Error
Constructing a logical but incorrect “memory” by using information retrieved from long-term memory plus one’s general knowledge and beliefs about the world.
Information Processing Model
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