Emergent Reader
children who are just beginning their literacy journeys
Age of Emergent Readers
two to five years of age
Word Analysis
knowledge about our written language and strategies that permit you to determine both the sounds of words and their meanings as you read. Develops as children acquire abilities in phonological and phonemis awareness, phonics, context use, sight word knowledge, etc.
Phonological Awareness
when children are aware of language as an object, can manipulate and use words. It is the word, syllable level of understanding
Phonemic Awareness
being able to hear phonemes (smallest unit of sound) as individual soundsincludes sound matching, sound blending, sound isolation, sound addition, sound substitution, and sound subtractionex: /r/ or /d/
the smallest unit of sound
Diff b/n phonological and phonemic awareness
phono — realize that language can be manipulated; words are sounds.

pheno- hear individual sounds (words are made up of sounds)

ultimately an understanding of sounds that helps us sound out unfamiliar words
2 Parts of Phonics
1) understand relationship between sounds and letters.2) ability to put sounds together to form words.
regular letter sound associated with the letter
Context Use
using what comes before and after a word to understand the its meaning
Sight Word Knowledge
word that we recognize immediately (sound, meaning) — allows you to read quickly.
___ Sight Words account for ___ of all words encountered when reading
200 words50%
Morphemic Analysis
being able to break a word into its prefix, suffix, etc to get sound and meaning
prefixes, suffixes, a meaning unit
Chunking Wordsaka: structural analysis, syllabication
technique of breaking words into smaller units meant to help determine pronunciation and meaning
Dictionary Skills
ability to use a dictionary to determine meaning or sound of words
Developmental Spelling Patterns
can help us determine where a child is on their journey of learning to read/writeespecially revealing to see uncorrected spelling (invented spelling)
Semantic Information
meaning elements of language; vocabulary and conceptual background give semantic meaning to written language
sentence patterns and structure (grammar); help guide meaning
scientific study of language
the writing system of a language; based on alphabetic principle, morphological and syntactic considerations
How many phonemes does cat have?
three: /c/ /a/ /t/
written or printed representation of a phonemeex: th, i, s
written or printed representation of a phonemeex: th, i, s
How many graphemes does the word path have?
three — p, a, th
How can you assess phonological awareness?
“I wanna .

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…” game (substitute nouns)clap, tap out words in a sentence; clap, tap out syllables in a word.

How can you assess phonemic awareness?
ability to rhyme one word with anotherability to put several sounds together to form one word
Percentage of students with phonemic awareness by first grade?
2 elements of Phonics Instruction
1) knowing the relationship between letters and sounds2)Knowing how to blend sounds represented by letters
Alphabetic Principle
many letters that map reasonably well onto sounds
Phonics Knowledge
understanding the patterns that relate letters to sounds
Onset Patterns
initial consonant letters found at the beginning of syllables and words
Rime Pattern
limited set of the most common endings to syllables and words
sounds produced by a restriction in the airsteam; have most consistent relationship between letters and sounds
Key Words
examples of words containing common onset consonants
# of common rime patterns
24 rime patterns start w/ this vowel
a; it is the most common
3 of the rime patterns start w/ this vowel
e; it is the least common
word families
aka – phonogramsrime patterns, a common pattern that contains a vowel and any following of consonants
Consonant Cluster
multiple consonants that appear at the beginning of words and syllables
Consonant Digraph
two different letters that appear together and represent a SINGLE sound ex: ch, ph, sh, th
Voiced th
this, that, their, them –> we add voice to the th when we say it
unvoiced th
think, thin
What three sounds does the digraph ch make?
ch (chair) , k (character) , sh (chef)
Consonant Blend
consists of two or three consecutive consonant letters, each represent a separate phoneme that is blended together
“l” blends
bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sl, spl,
“r” blends
br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr, thr
“s” blend
sc, sk, sl, sm, sn, sp, st, sw, scr, spr, squ
Hard C
sounds like “k”usually followed by o, a, u
soft c
sounds like “s”usually followed by vowels i, e, y
hard g
sounds like “g”usually followed by a, o, u
soft g
sounds like “j”usually followed by vowels i, e, y
makes the “sh” sound
makes the “ch” sound
letter ‘x’- makes three sounds
normally makes the ks sound;at beginning makes the ‘z’ soundex: ‘gz’ sound
makes the ‘j’ sound
Silent Consonant Patterns
sometimes letters are just markers (only one sound is used in a combination of letters)
double consonant
when there is a double consonant in a word, usually only ONE of the consonants is heard.

when you see KN, the k is silent and the ‘n’ is pronounced
when you see GN, the ‘g’ is silent and the ‘n’ is pronounced
how tell sound of vowel
position — “position of vowel within a spelling pattern often provides more cues about its sound than does knowledge about letter-sound relationships”
sounds produced without a restriction in the airstream
how many vowels and name
5 typical, 2 ‘sometimes’a, e, i, o, u ; y, w
long vowel
aka – glided vowelsounds like like the name of the vowel
two positions of a long vowel?
1) vowel occurs at the end of a word or syllable2) vowel is followed by a consonant and the letter ‘e’ at the end of a word
position of short vowel?
occur most frequently in a word or syllable that ends in a consonant cluster
r controlled vowels
when ‘r’ follows a vowel, it affects the sound (has its own, unique sound)ex: car, her, bird, turn
letter ‘y’ functions in two vowel positions. What are they?
1) long ‘e’ when it is at end of work with more than one syllable (ex: candy)2) long ‘i’; appears at the end of a one syllable work (ex: cry)
Vowel diagraph
two or three vowel letters that appear together and they represent a single, distinct soundex: ou, ee, ai, oy
aka: vowel blendstwo vowels that appear together and represent a blend of the two sounds (that retain some of the original letter)ex: oi in soil; ou and mouse
CVC pattern
consonant, vowel consonantex: hotwhen there is one vowel in a word and the word ends in a consonant, the vowel usually represents the short sound
CV pattern
consonant vowelex: mevowel sound is usually long when the vowl is the final letter in the word
VCE pattern
Vowel, consonant, silent ‘e’ex: makewhen a word has two vowels, one of which is a final ‘e’, separated from the first vowel by a consonant, the sound is long
VV pattern
vowel, vowelex: rain, boatwhen there are two consecutive vowels in a word, the first one usually has a long sound and the second one is usually silent, unless they are dipthongs