Introduction

In this case study
I will be examining the disastrous event that accrued on September 11, 2001. I
will explore the National response after this disastrous event, and will
specifically explore how the United States of American responded after this
event.  Looking at the action plan that
was put in place to help prevent future terror attacks like this from happening
in our country again. I will also be looking at the nation’s reactions to this
event both during and after, examining the ripple effect it placed on social prejudice,
which can be seen in the actions taken by airlines and other agencies.

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 On September 11, 2001 hijackers who went
through airport security boarded four American planes and overpowered pilots
and passengers, to use these crafts as weapons. Although the almost one hundred
thousand people below in New York City were not impacted, the first responders
on the sense were also saving many lives during the collapse of the towers.
After these attacks a global strategy was created to dismantle the Al Qaeda network
and created long-term action to conquer this hatred ideology of America that
contributes to this Islamic terrorism.

Some of the recommendations that
came out of the reports on the response to terror, was to attack organizations
and any other organizations by preventing the growth of it’s of Islamic
terrorism. Also, by defining the United States message in defending US ideals
protection against and preparation for terrorist attacks by reforming US
Homeland security.

 

This event is significant because
it was one of the most tactics events of its time. It was almost a sort of wake
up call to the nation’s security that we need to pay more attention and gather
Intel that will be reviewed in a timely manner. Also, it showed the United
States more about domestic terrorism.  I
would like to explore the nation’s attitude on terrorism after this event and
also explore the stereotypes and prejudices brought about.  It is important to see how the nation views
its differences and also how the treat them. 
In media, legislation, and even airport security you can still see the
nation’s fear of terrorism, and the prejudices against all Muslims can still be
seen today.

The attack  

 

            The
September 11th crisis took place under President Bush’s
administration.  With guidance from his
advisors he was able to effectively respond to the crisis. During the days that
followed the attack government agencies like the U.S. intelligence and security
sought to define the cause of this disaster and identifying the culprits and
which organization they represented, Bush also had to look at the countries
they came from. (Hart, P., TINDALL, K., & BROWN, C. 2009:483)

Bush was very proactive in his
involvement in the deliberation on how the government would respond, he would
later announce a war on terrorism. (Hart, et al. 2009:481) Some think that the
action by the government creates a delusional fear of terrorism. Yes, terrorism
is real but in the article by Muller (2012), he states that only a small amount
of cases of terrorism against America have been examined but that small number
feeds into the fear American’s have, but it doesn’t justify the trillions of
dollars spent on this war. (Mueller, J., & Stewart, M. 2012: 83) While this
act of terrorism was disastrous, it was the impact it had on the country after
that hasn’t ended years later. This disastrous event changed policy, social
views and culture. Americans because less trusting of foreigners, and also
social bias’ can been seen now more than ever. The stigma that was placed on a
whole religion because of the actions of one group impacted society greatly. It
also showed the problems in the countries response to disasters of this nature.

Communication between political
officials during this disaster was key to the  success of the administration,  because of this Bush presented informed
information to the media but did little else, the significant response from
other levels of government such as Mayor 
Rudy Giuliani succeeded where Bush failed, he was in charge for the
immediate emergency response and recovery operations for the city. (Hart, P. et
al. 2009:485)  Action was needed with
emergency response teams all the way to a change in legislations practices.

In the article by Fenwick (2002) it details the legislation
responses after September 11th. 
They take a look at counter terrorism legislation to help protect
democracy while fighting terrorism. While there were laws on how to process
terrorist, there wasn’t a lot that stated how the government could go about
tracking and attacking groups while still being cautious of political
alliances. The article takes a stance with the government, seeing that it is
within the government’s rights to take extraordinary measures when it comes to
terrorism. It looks into the Human Rights Act 1998 and how it contended with
the government to give citizens powers, Terrorism Act 2000 and the Regulation
of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 that came into legislation as a direct response
to counter terrorism. (2002:725) The creation of these Anti-Terrorism Acts
seeks to create an effective legislation that would give the government justification
for a range of measures to fight against terrorism, for example those who were
suspected of terrorism under an act the government would be allowed to ignore a
persons humans rights. (Fenwick, 2002:727)

The
just of this article breaks down the acts by what they are allowed to do and
the legal rights that allow the government and its intelligence agencies to act
in the interest of national security. Although 9/11 does bring change to
legislation and also allow those in power to use American policy to there own
agendas. (Cole, 2006:30) Which can be seen in the government’s actions against
the Middle East in the coming years.

 

In
the article by David Campbell  (2001) he
looks at how the events of September 11 created an altered perception of time,
on how it seemed like time stayed still after the attack. Because this event
was so traumatic for the American people time seemed to go slower making it
seems almost unreal to them, he goes on to explain the struggle that society
had to put a meaning behind why this event happened and the consequences of
this event on the public. With this one violent event that happened in US
history form policy what’s one of the first things that we have looked at
during this time.  United States
government specifically President Bush stated that it was ‘our values’ that
were attacked, this shown in the media went on creating a hostile environment that
everybody hates America and that is why they’re attacking. (Campbell 2001)

This
goes on to show how media coverage overview influenced American citizens.

One
study of adolescent adjustment to the terror attacks used an online survey to
question both parental responses and on how this event impacted adolescents.
This article explains the study done on adolescents after the event of
September 11th.  The data
collected from a web-based survey for adolescents asked questions to help assess
the participants stress symptoms. Evaluating adolescent support given to them
from parents and information and coping advice received. (Gil-Rivas, Virginia, et al. 2007) Looking at the symptoms over seven months after 9/11, this
study examination of the adolescents exposed to the attacks either through
first hand accounts or through watching the events unfold on television we examined
for stress and other PTS symptoms. (Gil-Rivas,
Virginia, et al. 2007:1064) This survey shows that
not only adults were affected by 9/11 but young people to and the tools that
were given to the adults to help them means to assist in provide coping.

Response

The
response to this disastrous attack could have gone many different ways.

An
increase in driving and a decree in flying, people traveling were looking for
other modes of transportation. This fear of flying for fear of terrorist and
also many people were deterred because of the new security measures for air
travelers.

 A chapter in the book The Long Shadow of 9/11,
K. Riley (2011) looks at the changes that happened with in the airport.  Looking at TSA also known as transportation
security administration the airport started increasing physical awareness for
air travelers. If you ever traveled after 9/11 you know that going through TSA
is a tedious thing, national attention was put in airports to better examine traveler’s
belongings and what passengers brought on planes. The first change was full
body imaging scanners that were put in the at the end of security lines, these
stand both the body and travelers baggage passenger security scans and screen
while effective did not find everything. (Riley, 2011:148) 

Creating
a system that would accomplish passenger risk management effectively the
subjected travelers coming into the United States to higher levels of
inspection. They also ended up creating a “trusted traveler program” (2011) that
provided travelers a way to bypass the increased security screening. While this
is not foolproof it does screen the applicants very thoroughly with a background
checks, fingerprints and also an extensive traveler profile. (Riley, 2011:155)

After
9/11 they added frisking as a primary method because attempted attackers would
hide materials wonder person and that did not always show up on the scans. (Riley,
2011:149) This response from the airport safety shows one of the biggest affect
of 9/11, especially because the attacks of 9/11 came from the air so the
biggest response from corporations like the airport needed to make the safety
of passengers and priority and with that came stricter traveling rules and
screenings.

 

 

The aftermath

The ongoing
outcome of 9/11 is seen in many ways. In the chapter by Hoffman, B., & Kasupski, A the authors
address what changes came from the surviving family members of those involved
in 9/11.  The surviving family members
created groups that would push public policies to improve government’s responses
to terrorism and also in show Memorial for those that we’ve lost during this
terror attack. (Hoffman, B., & Kasupski, A. 2007:3) This chapter looks at
the many members of these groups that while diverse all have one thing in
common and the aftermath of this attack that they wanted some type of change
they wanted guidance and they wanted information. This chapter really shows
that the family members voiced questions and concerns to government officials
that wouldn’t have been addressed publicly had they not demanded answers. This
allowed the public to be a part of political efforts that were taking place.
Although change was ddefinitelybeing implements this chapter shows that the
families knew the importance of the media and with that public pressure on
results. (Hoffman, B., & Kasupski, A. 2007:6) The intelligence community
was in need of some type of reform and reconstruction and with the families
pushing for answers the investigations came up with detailed reports on
intelligence failures and accountability. (Hoffman, B., & Kasupski, A.
2007:6) In this chapter it goes on a name many groups that are made up of the
surviving members of the victims of 9/11 but also they’re made up of citizens
who want to promote and participate in these activities to push legislation
answers and change in things like the airline industry. (Hoffman, B., &
Kasupski, A. 2007:14) Aiding people in the form of financial relief funds and
also offering free services to help with members that we’re suing for answers
and accountability of this disastrous act.

In the article by Juan Cole, he
provides an informed opinion of the 9/11 attacks. Cole (2006) Sees the attacks
of 9/11 as a clash over policy, that was portrayed in the media as an attack on
American values when it was some more.  While many thoughts that this attack was a
victory for Al Qaeda it brought much attention to the organization that they
weren’t anticipating, but although there was an internal struggle with
leadership they were able to capitalize on the Iraq war.  (Cole, 2006:28)

Another response to the attack was
a massive response to aide the victims of the attack.  In the article by Saraswat, S., & Williams, C (2002) the
media and internet were extremely significant in providing information of the
need for disaster relief and the ppublic’sresponses was instant. This study
shows how online companies assisted in the contributions for relief. (Saraswat,
S., & Williams, C. 2002:4) Many companies gave millions to aid in the
relief effort, it was shown that it wasn’t just the company owners, employee
contributions were matched by many companies in additional to general
contributions donated by the companies. (Saraswat, S., & Williams, C. 2002:7)

Conclusion

 

This war on terror with never truly
end, Cole (2006) explains how with the administration the focus merely shifts
from one group to another. (Cole, 2006:30) 

After 9/11 the creation of the
response commission that assessed crisis performance presented governments with
a framework of a need for an effective disastrous response. This would later be
expanded upon after the damage done by Hurricane Katrina. (Hart, P, 2009:489) 

The challenges that come after
disastrous events are important to the configuration of effective response from
all levels of government.   Having an effective outline of when other
levels of government need to assist a community is key to saving lives. With
9/11 information was overlooked and mistakes were made that costs many people
their lives. Creating a policy that looks closer at all travelers coming in
from international flights and other countries is

Memorials for those that were lost
in this tragic event were put up in a variety of ways after the attack, the
American people truly came together. To create a memory for the World Trade
Center towers for the New York firefighters and for all victims of the
September 11 attack. (Hyman, 2007:183) In the article by Hyman, he showed the
tensions among the people around New York City. While creating a collection of
work that showed images of memorials and American pride he was not always
welcome. Being an unknown person in some of the towns around the city people were
generally suspicious, jumpy and not happy with a stranger taking pictures or
being on their property. (Hyman, 2007:184) 
While American were showing pride by hanging up the flag or pictures,
the tension many had for unknown persons grew along with it stereotypes against
other races.  America has long been a melting
pot of cultures.  In his search for
memorial art, Hyman found artwork and murals that that depicted powerful
statements of love and remembrance but also of identity. While people did come
together they also created a divide, fearing differences. We will continue to
learn from the attack and hopefully one day this war on terror will end.

 

 

Works Cited

 

Campbell,
D. “Time Is Broken: The Return of the Past In the Response to September
11.2001. ” Theory & Event, vol. 5 no. 4. (Received from Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/tae.2001.0032).

Cole,
J. 2006. Think Again: 9/11. Foreign
Policy, (156),
26-32. (Retrieved November 20, 2017 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25462080).

Fenwick,
H. 2002. The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001: A Proportionate
Response to 11 September? The
Modern Law Review, 65(5), 724-762.
Retrieved November 6, 2017 from (http://www.jstor.org/stable/1097614).

Gil-Rivas, Virginia,
et al. 2007. “Parental Response and Adolescent Adjustment to the September
11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks.” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol.
20, no. 6, Dec. 2007, pp. 1063-1068. EBSCOhost, (doi:10.1002/jts.20277).

Hart,
P., TINDALL, K., & BROWN, C. 2009. Crisis Leadership of the Bush
Presidency: Advisory Capacity and Presidential Performance in the Acute Stages
of the 9/11 and Katrina Crises. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 39(3),
473-493. (Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41427375).

Hoffman,
B., & Kasupski, A. 2007. 9/11: Power in Numbers. In The Victims of Terrorism: An Assessment
of Their Influence and Growing Role in Policy, Legislation, and the Private
Sector (pp.
3-16). Santa Monica, CA; Arlington, VA; Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation.
Retrieved from (http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/op180ctrmp.9).

Hyman,
J. 2007. The Public Face of 9/11: Memory and Portraiture in the
Landscape. The Journal of American History,94(1), 183-192.
doi:10.2307/25094788.

Mueller,
J., & Stewart, M. 2012. The Terrorism Delusion: America’s Overwrought
Response to September 11. International
Security, 37(1), 81-110.
The MIT Press. Retrieved November 6, 2017, from Project MUSE database.

Riley,
K. 2011. Flight of Fancy?: Air Passenger Security Since 9/11. In Dobbins J.,
Muñoz A., Jones S., Wehrey F., Rabasa A., Larson E., et al. (Authors) &
Jenkins B. & Godges J. (Eds.), The Long Shadow of 9/11: America’s Response to Terrorism (pp. 147-160).
Santa Monica; Arlington; Pittsburgh: RAND Corporation. Retrieved
November 6, 2017 from
(http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/mg1107rc.21).

Saraswat,
S., & Williams, C. 2002. Charity begins at home: A socio-technical analysis
of corporate websites to study the response to September 11. ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society, 32(1), 4-15. Retrieved November 6, 2017 from (https://doi-org.prx.library.gatech.edu/10.1145/511134.511136).