Introduction:

Indian
staple food is 60% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, 15% fats. Among fats ¾th
composition is edible oils. The change in dietary habits for the last 2-3 decades
have shown the change in ratio of omega-3 to omega-6  fatty acids from 1: 1 to 1: 20-25 because the
Indian diets are deficient in omega- 3 fatty acids. Oils of domestic
consumption are sunflower oil, safflower oil, palm oil , mustard oil etc. the
domestic usage of edible oils varies from one 
region other region in India. It was found that  consumption of sunflower oil and palm oil in
diet is relatively high in South India when compared to North, east and west
regions. Increased usage of  refined
grains and processed oils in diet increases the prevalence of metabolic
syndrome. Commonly using oils are rich in omega -6 poly unsaturated fatty acids
. According to world Health Organization the ratio of omega 3 to omega 6 fatty acids
should be 1:1, but it is 1:120 in sunflower oil.  omega -6 poly unsaturated fatty acids  from vegetable oils do not generate energy ,
gets accumulated on cell membranes, undergoing chemical changes. Omega 6 PUFA
oxidizes rapidly in body due to favorable temperature and produces free radicals.

 The increased intake
of omega -6 poly unsaturated fatty acids causes activation of Arachidonic acid
inturn  eicosanoid metabolism which
enhances the inflammatory reactions leading to the pathogenesis of many chronic
diseases including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, auto immune
diseases, cancer, osteoporosis and Alziemer’s disease due to generation of free
radicals.

 

Objectives: 

To create
the proper awareness about the usage of types of edible oils for maintenance of
good health

To educate
people about the dangerous effects caused by alteration in the omega 3 &
omega 6 fatty acids ratio , and to bring awareness among the public for using
combination of various oils mainly enriched with omega-3 fatty acids which is
needed for prevention and management of metabolic syndrome leading to the
complications.

Methodology:

Sample size: 100
induviduals

Study population: People of different age groups.

Inclusion criteria: People  of both sexes

                                 People of all
age groups.

Exclusion criteria: Excluding those people who consume oils
of animal origin.

 

 A study is to be conducted on people
about  the type of vegetable oil they
consume. Their lipid profile is tested along with the assessment of other
components of Metabolic syndrome i.e. fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, waist
circumference.

About 5 ml of fasting blood was obtained by vein puncture of
patient  by using sterile disposable
syringes and needles. The blood was collected into suitable vacutainers. It was
allowed to clot and it was then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min at room
temperature. The serum was analyzed on the day of collection for fasting blood  sugar and lipid profile tests. Serum total
cholesterol was determined by an enzymatic (CHOD-PAP) colorimetric method  and triglycerides were determined by an
enzymatic (GPO-PAP) method. HDL-Cholesterol was estimated by a precipitant method
 and LDL-Cholesterol by was estimated by
using Friedewald’s formula  as has been
shown below: LDL-C = TC – HDL-C – (TG/5). Serum glucose was determined by using
the glucose oxidase enzymatic method . All the parameters which were under
investigation were determined in the serum of the subjects by using
commercially available reagent kits. The lipid profile of the subjects was
classified, based on the ATP III model 16. The values of all the parameters
were given in mg/dl and they were expressed as mean ± SD. A conclusion is
obtained by analyzing the data from survey and lipid profile along with score
of metabolic syndrome components.

Implications:

In our locality no such study is being done so far about the
danger caused by omega-6 fatty acids. Prevention or delayed onset of commonly
prevailing diseases which occur due to free radical generation like diabetes
mellitus, atherosclerosis can be done by reducing omega-6 fatty acids content
in diet. Thus proper role of omega-6 fatty acids due to edible oils  in developing metabolic syndrome can be
established.

References:

Lakshmi Priya
N ,et al. Types of vegetable oils used in cooking and risk of metabolic
syndrome among Asian Indians.Int J Food Sci Nutr.2013.

Narasimhan  S, Nagarajan
L,Vaidya R,Gunasekharan G, RajagopalG, Parthasarathy V, Unnikrishnan R, AnjanaRM,
Mohan V Sudha.Dietary fat intake and its association with risk of selected
components of metabolic syndrome among rural South Indians.Indian J Endocr
Metab 2016;20:47-54

Fats   & fatty
acids in Indian diets: Time for serious introspection.Indian J Med Res .2016
Oct;144(4):507-514. Doi:10.4103/0971-5916.200904  PMCID:PMC5345296

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