INTRODUCTIONGlobal warming is a great perl,the most pretentious areas are the coastlines of less developed countries andIndia is one of them. Mainly, the deltas of river are facing the brunt ofclimate change and these effects can be expected to rise with a pace in thecourse of this century.
The Sunderban Rainforest are one of the region in Indiahaving a great threat.The Sunderbans is the world’s stupendous mangrove forest.Designated as a United Nations World Heritage site in both India andBangladesh, it covers nearly 4,000 square miles (10,000 squarekilometers). The forest provides home to the Bengal tiger, as well as otherrare and endangered species of aquatic mammals, birds and reptiles.DESCRIPTIONSundarbans mangroveecosystem, (between 21032’–220 40′ North and between 880 85’–89000 East) is anunique, productive and highly valued ecosystem in terms of economy, environmentand ecology (Chakraborty, 2011). Although, mangroves of India account for only0.67% of the total designated forest area of the country, their presence remainutterly important under growing concern of global reduction of mangrovehabitats and need special attention. The Indian mangroves contributesignificantly towards the shrinking of global mangrove reserves withapproximately 2.
7% of the world’s mangroves those exist along the 7516.6km longcoastline of India (Giri et al.,2011). Several conservation strategies havebeen adopted to protect Indian mangroves in view of ongoing and persistingecological and anthropogenic threats.(Bhatt and Kathiresan, 2012).
TheSundarbans Mangrove Forest is particularly critical and a highly fragileecosystem because of its complexgeo-morphological and environmental settings,enormous population density and gradual shrinking of the islands under therising Sea level (Das Gupta and Shaw, 2013).ASSESSMENT OFBIODIVERSITY Field surveys, collection, and identification of floral and faunalcomponents during last two decades following standard literatures (Chaudhuriand Choudhury 1994, Chakraborty, 2011, Giri and Chakraborty, 2012). RECORDINGOF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS Different Physico-chemicalparameters of soil and water were analyzed following standard methods (APHA,2005) and with the help of water quality checker (Towa, Model No.
WQC 22AJapan). Meteorological parameters (Rainfall, Temperature) of previous decadeswere collected from the Indian Meteorological Department, Alipore, Kolkata(Chakraborty et al.. 2009).
APPLICATION OFREMOTESENSING AND GIS Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery has proven to be effectivein mapping temporal and spatial variations in environmental indicators withinlarge water bodies, as well as phyto-environment, pedological characterization,land use/cover system etc. For land use/cover thematisation, Optimum IndexFactor (OIF) has been used for selecting the potential band combination, whichis based on the total variance within bands and correlation coefficient betweenbands. The products of vegetation vis-s-vis forest cover mapping derived fromremotely sensed images are being objectively verified and communicated in orderto enable to chalk out proper strategies for sustainable environmentalmanagement. However, the role of vegetation indices and textural imagesimproving land-cover classification performance is still poorly understood,especially in moist tropical vegetated regions such as the Sundarbans mangroveforest areas.TheSundarban Biosphere Reserve which was declared in 1989 is one of the three greatestmarine biosphere reserves in the country. The main objective of the marinebiosphere reserve is protection, conservation and judicious utilization of themarine environment.
The Sundarbans Project Tiger and National Park and thethree Wildlife Sanctuaries i.e Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary, Lothian IslandSanctuary, Haliday Island Sanctuary are located within the biosphere reserve.The other areas in the reserve are habitations and cultivated fields. Peopleliving in these forest areas are predominantly either fishermen or farmers. TheSundarban Biosphere Reserve has been divided into two regions for effectivemanagement. They are the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve under the Field Director(Gosaba) and D.F.O Parganas South (Alipore).
CAUSES AND ITS EXTENTTigers already threatened by poaching and habitat loss.In addition to climate change, the Sundarbanstigers, like other tiger populations around the world already face tremendousthreats from poaching and habitat loss. Tiger ranges have fallen by 40 percentover the past decade, and tigers today occupy less than seven percent of theiroriginal range. Scientists fear that accelerating deforestation and rampantpoaching could push some tiger populations to the same fate as theirnow-extinct Javan and Balinese relatives in other parts of Asia. Tigers are attacked for their body parts andhighly prized skins, which are used in traditional Chinese medicine. The 2010Year of the Tiger will mark an important year for conservation efforts to savewild tigers, with WWF continuing to play a vital role in implementing bold newideas to save this magnificent Asian big cat.Thecurrent and potential threats to both the aquatic and terrestrial elements ofthe property are many.
Largely effective management of the Sundarbans NationalPark means that current threats to the site are minimized. However, theSundarbans National Park is part of the wider Sundarbans ecosystem, andactivities both within the site’s buffer zone and within the wider Sundarbansand the Bay of Bengal provide cause for concern in regards to the site’sOutstanding Universal Values. Future threats from sea level rise and increasedfrequency and intensity of extreme weather events (storms and tidal surges)under climate change are severe. The site’s ecological and biodiversity valuesare all affected by these pressures and the Outstanding Universal Values of thesite are therefore under serious threat in the future.The largest habitat ofthe Royal Bengal Tiger, the Sundarbans is home to five critically endangeredreptiles, including the Hawksbill Sea Turtle and River Terrapin.The endangered andnear-threatened species in Sundarbans include the Asian Giant Softshell Turtle,Indian Rock Python, King Cobra, Greater Adjutant Stork, Black-headed Ibis,Fishing Cat and Gangetic Dolphin.According to officialfigures, about 175,000 tourists visited the Sundarbans tiger reserve, whileanother 42,000 people visited the biosphere reserve in 2015.Besides large-scaletourism, climate change is also posing a threat to Sundarbans, according toWorld Wildlife Fund-India (WWF-India).
A Climate AdaptationReport released by the group warned that Sundarbans was “already in the midstof a heightened state of danger.”Atmospheric warming iscausing thermal expansion of waters, inducing a sea-level rise of about 12 mmper year, the report said, adding that surface air temperatures over the Bay ofBengal have been rising at a rate of 0.019 degrees Celsius (0.034 degreesFahrenheit) per year.”Given thedisproportionately heavy impact that climate change is expected to have on thisdelta area, the need to improve adaptive management and develop moreappropriate solutions for this unique system has become acutely urgent,” theWWF report said.Ratul Saha, who headsWWF’s Sundarbans Landscape team, said, “The current policies and patterns ofdevelopment have to be completely revised, or else the situation would becatastrophic. The livelihoods and the survival of the people are at risk.
“Climate change hasbeen found to be responsible for several cyclonic storms and increasedfrequency of extreme weather events in the recent past in the Sundarbans, Sahasaid. It has also been causing coastal erosion, change in embankments,acidification of waters and submergence of islands.Thus Analysisof the problem has been done.