Introduction

This study is focused on the
Ethical, Societal and Economical Issue faced by the local government unit.
Preliminary talk about the significance problem not only on local government
unit but also the government and society so the researcher can answer when,
where, how, who and what is the problem is all about; After defining the
problem, the Researchers can now know how Information Technology can give a
solution to solve the problem.

 

Research Background

The
Country of the Philippines is an archipelago and a country with a total of population of 103.3 million;
The Philippines’s political system is separated into three geographical areas,
the Visayas, Luzon and Mindanao. They are further divided into 17 regions, 81
provinces, 117 cities, 1,501 municipalities, and 41,982 barangays.

The
government of the Philippines has inadequacy in transparency on most things.
The Researchers couldn’t deny that a lot of corruption is happening to our
government. The Government give effective set of action planed for every Local
Government Units. The Goal is to successfully implement this action on budget
and on time. The government is not lack of planning and preparation for making
a solution or intervention for a given problem, they consider many things, they
have rich of information used to solve the issue they faced. Absence of
Accountability of authorities who managed the project result corruption.
Corruption is the most relevant issue faced by the government, loss in evidence
that support reports provided by the councilor and authorities are not ethical
way of facilitating a government and local government unit.

The
local government units are the unit that allows the government to directly
interact with the society. This local government unit give services for their
authority, they give peace and order, health care and medicine, disaster and
risk management and so forth. This units are freely to interact with the
society, it helps the government to classify the integration of the status and
behavior for each of the constituents to know what is the best solution from
the set of action provided by the government 5. Wrong data input by the
constituents manage by the authorities will result wrong evaluation and
classification, wrong decision-making and solution, and Government inaccuracy
and effectiveness will deficient.

The
government fund is proportionally capable in supporting the existing and future
solution or services for their authority. The fund itself is high enough to
support the society. Encouraging them to take part to the solution provided by
the government for them and this will result productivity, positive outcome,
and progress. Executing fund has a lot of process before it will produce,
distribution of the fund has less in transparency, the governments are not
capable to tract the fund and are not capable to check the progress resulting
of the fund. For example, the program by the government called 4Ps (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino
Program),
the guidelines of this program are to track the constituents who are not
capable to support their child going to school. The goal is to encourage the
parents for their child to go to school and for them to be productive. Some of the
constituents are not threaten right by the said program, other constituents are
not eligible to have rights to this program, few of the constituents are not
have check on using their fund or their progress, and some of the authorities
who manage the fund takes the advantage.

Local
government units serve as the fundamental source of information for the
government, it helps the society on their living, and it helps the government
for decision-making 6. To come up with the best decision, the government needs
to gather exact information ease by these LGUs from the society 2. Accuracy
is must for effective decision making.

Local
government such as barangay is the primary observation of the government.
Barangay helps to ease the society of its authority. Transactional process of
request of giving rights of barangay like barangay clearance; Barangay
Clearance is one of the most transaction use by the constituents, the problem
of this transaction is that the interval of request of this transact is 60
days, some of the constituents can request another one within a week because of
weak in monitoring, and there is no verification that can prove the said
concern or the use of the Clearance. The transaction form itself is not
uniformly the same as another barangay.

Every
Barangay is unique with each other, with the use of Information Technology, the
researcher can able to unite the Information produce of each Barangay to come
up with a broad Knowledge. Configuration and Integration Model of Web-based
Solution that can solve the barrier that integrate the barangay with each
other, Canonical model that can translate or transform the dimensionality of
each barangay with one single dimension 8. Link of Data technology to help
the government who directly interact with the LGUs with the broad information
produce by this solution will come up with the effectiveness and efficiency of
the Decision-making or solution planning.

 

Research Problem

     General
Problem
          The
General Problem in each municipal that affects everyone is the social
inequality where some of government official having an unequal treatment of an
individual. Like not all the poor families are having a chance to get some
benefits from the barangay and the rich ones were the one whose getting it.
      Specific Problem
          The
Barangay must have primary sources of information of the Government. Barangay
must be able to give the needs of every individuals inside its authority. By setting
up constitutional activity like medical mission, feeding programs etc. Second,
the Authority who’s controlling the process will have a status describing every
flow of the projects in the barangay with an update of the progress and
clearing all the mistaken transaction happen.

Objective
of the Research

   General
Objective
       The Researchers goal is to have a system that
will help society; officials and other authorities leading their jurisdiction.

   Specific
Objective
 Based on the research problem, the
source of the information of an individual whose living in the particular place
which is the barangay. The researchers Wanted to make a system for the barangay
that makes the transaction to have a less redundancy and a system that has a
reliable security to hide the private information to an individual and
officials.

The following Research problem
are:

·        
Societal Issue

Societal Issue is the common problem in
every barangay. This issue affects everyone by different way such as:

o   Social
Inequality – where some of government mistake takes place, some of constituents
are not threaten equally. This can result Discourage or unawareness of the
community towards the Barangay.

o   Age
and Life Course – Local Government deficient through this life course, there
are Social Issue associated with different generation of ages. It may affect
the morality of new generation.

o   Social
disorganization – This problem occurs on the constituents who aren’t aware on
their Surroundings resulting disorganize in the society.

o   Public
health – a ubiquitous health condition towards the barangay. It can affect the
condition of life and ability of the individual that can contribute to society
and work.

 

 

 

 

·        
Economical Issue

Economical Issue is a problem that every barangay need to solve to keep their
accountability and transparency. Maintain the finite number of their resources
to satisfy the needs of their Constituents 1.

o   Unemployment
– This is the population in the community without a job. Affect the growth of
the barangay.

o   Education
Attainment – This is a category of society that describe their education degree
and skills. Resulting Discrimination and Discourage.

o   Gender
– it is the scope between the attribute appropriate to, and differentiating
between masculinity and femininity. Inequality from male to female.

·        
How to test the System using ISO/IEC-9126?

The Researcher Propose a Rational Unified Process (RUP)
Methodology that are suitable for the numbers of LGUs in the Philippines.
Integration between Barangays will never be a disaster; instead, entities are
steadily integrated. The software can upgrade or fix time-to-time, the result
is a more robust software. This Methodology will have helped the researchers to
save time; For instance, the researcher can run the system with just one
function such as input functionality so that the encoder can start to encode
while the testers are in testing.

 

The ISO/IEC-9126 properties are flexible to the
researcher’s Methodology that evaluates the characteristic of a software or
application. The solution will satisfy the six Quality model (Functionality,
Reliability, Maintainability, Efficiency, Usability, and Portability).

 

Functionality -The solution ensures that the Goal will
satisfied the solution, the rules are followed as the business rules,
development of the software is documented and can read by anyone, the
developers are committed that all of the confidential development material will
disposed and will remain confidential, Functionality compliance will achieve
with the use of the methodology.

 

Reliability – A huge number of beneficiaries will make
the solution matured; the solution will rely on how does the Local Government will keep
the Maturity of the system. The functionality of the software is
different from one another, so it can conquer faults.

Usability – The researcher will ensure that all the processes will optimize to
lower the time consumption, the software is accessible within the working age
range, GUI is minimal to the eyes of the users. Ensuring that the User
Interface is User-friendly.

 

Efficiency
– The solution will lessen the time consumption of every task and use the
Information using databases.
Maintainability – The researcher ensure that future researcher or developer
will easily understand the system by giving them the quality of information in
this capstone and can be used for keeping and upgrading the solution. The
solution is dynamic so that it must have maintenance not only in the software
but also the hardware.

Portability – The solution is dynamic that integrate each barangay together
that ties broad information into knowledge. The solution must flexible enough
to adapt the requirements and rules that is identical to each of the barangay.

All in all, the Methodology can satisfy the requirements and metrics for
evaluation of the solution.

Research Scope and Delimitation

This
study covers only those constituents in Barangay San Jose, Mandaluyong City, exploited
by Municipality of Mandaluyong. It highlights the significance problem of the
barangay like security, societal and economical issue. The purpose of this
research is to maximize where does the traffic of the process usually take
place, when will it usually happen, what is the cause of this problem and how
the Information Technology will help to solve this problem.

The
barangay is vulnerable in most of things, the security is to preserve and
protect peace and order, this preservation is not enough to counter such things
like terrorism, Information Technology can provide intelligent on monitoring
each of the residence living in the barangay with the use constituents
background, number of offenses, or even tracking people without police
clearance. The use of this solution is the awareness of the barangay towards
their constituents.

Societal
Issue is the common problem of the barangay. Pity crimes, poverty and health
care is example of societal issue; Pity Crimes are crimes with minor offenses
and can solve by the barangay council, listing the said issue with a system
will produce analytical view to help the barangay for planning local
intervention towards the issue and help to predict the outcome of the said
local intervention.

The
Economical issue within the barangay is complex, they process a lot of
government and private properties, establishment, schools, private donation,
government donation, procurement and so forth, the goal is for barangay to own
accountability towards of the discussion on how the barangay process asset and
liabilities.

The
researcher’s research scope focuses on some area of security, some area of
society, and some area of economy of the barangay. Managing constituents with
their profile have a lot of use, like in the said feature not only security but
also the economic and societal use for the barangay, for example: In security, Researchers
can track people without police clearance or NBI clearance; In economic and
society, they can track people without a job, with their skills, majority of
age in the society, proportion of women to men, poor families and so forth.

Economic
with the use of accounting takes a lot of time and effort, making a system that
can classify the transactions weather it is debit or credit is hard because the
said transaction is human interpretation, a lot of consideration to come up
with a system that can classify this data. As developing such complex system
like configurable and integrated model of accounting for local government unit
needs a lot references that is related on the government economic, accounting
and information system.

The
Researchers cannot develop a system that can make intervention towards the
problem of the society and security of the barangay, in developing this kind of
system has a lot of prerequisite, the developer must implement first data
mining and analytics in barangay, to draw patterns of information useful on
decision-making. The goal is that to make a study towards this implementation
and how does it contribute to the barangay, the system must carry out 99.99 %
percent of prediction towards the solution so that the developer can develop a
system that can make intervention with a human interpretation. This study will
take 2 capstones on researching and developing on the said system, and another
two capstones for studying the implemented solution and gather more related
references that will keep and counter the unpredictive probability of the
society and security towards to the system, and developing complex data-mining
system that can mine using the different processes of data-mining, this is the
primary features of the said system.

 

Research Assumptions

The research is all about Government and Information
technology, how this technology helps the government with their problems. The
problems towards the progress of the economy and society of the government are
the parasite inside the government or also known as corrupt politician, the
transparency with all the government, the small government with a huge impact
to the progress of economy and society, all of this are major problems that are
hard to solve but with the use of Information Technology, the researcher can
enlighten the questionable spot of the government, to come up with the best
answer for each problems like what is the cause of the problem, when is the
problem takes place and so forth; Imagine all of this complex question will
come up with an effective and accurate answer with the use of Information
Technology.

 

Significance of the Research

 

The findings of this study will exploit to the benefit of
society contemplating that Information Technology contribute advancement in Local
Government today. The greater demands of Technology justify the need for more
efficient and effective Governing approaches.

 (1) For LGUs that
apply the recommended approach bought from the output of this study, the Local
Governments will gain from the research for better understanding of
E-Governing. Thus, Administrators, the solution will have eased the daily works
of the barangay and will have guided on how the outputs of this solution will
help them in decision-making.

(2) For the constituents, the solution will help them to
satisfy their needs using finite resources of their barangay. With the Systems help,
it is easy to figure out and give Constituents their basic needs. And even the authorities
inside the Halls, will also have less works and efforts.

(3) The
researchers are currently taking up Project 1 and must pass by doing a research
about on societal issue. Therefore, the researchers will meet real life
situations where in the bond and the team work of the researchers would
malignantly test. Whence, the researchers on the other hand will gain their
experience and knowledge towards the advancement of the study.

(4) And for the future Researchers, this study will help
them uncover complex domain in educational method such as like this, a research
that many explorers were not able to discover. Thus, a new concept of Governing
may appear. It can also be a basis for other researchers for future purposes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

1 F.
Sá, Á. Rocha and M. P. Cota (2015). “Preliminary
dimensions for a quality model of electronic local government services”.
(2015). ,” 2015 10th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and
Technologies (CISTI) (pp. pp. 1-10). Aveiro: IEEE.
doi:10.1109/CISTI.2015.7170506
Dillon, Stuart;
Deakins, Eric; Hofmann, Sara; Räckers, Michael; and Kohlborn, Thomas. (2015).
A Longitudinal Study of Local EGovernment Development: The Policy Maker
Perspective. ECIS 2015 Completed Research Papers (p. pp. 37). ISBN.
Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2015_cr/37
Enrique Bonsón,
Lourdes Torres, Sonia Royo, Francisco Flores. (2012). Local e-government
2.0: Social media and corporate transparency in municipalities. Elsevier
Inc. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2011.10.001
Enrique Bonsón,
Lourdes Torres, Sonia Royo, Francisco Flores. (2013). Local e-government 2.0:
Social media and corporate transparency in municipalities. Elsevier Inc.
doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2011.10.001
F. Palijama, S.
Sumpeno and A. D. Wibawa. (2016). “Developing modified PeGI indicators
for e-Government Ranking method”. 2016 1st International Conference
on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering
(ICITISEE) (pp. pp. 169-173). Yogyakarta: IEEE.
doi:10.1109/ICITISEE.2016.7803068
F. Sá, J. Gonçalves
and Á. Rocha. (2016). “Towards a model for the quality of local
government online services”. 2016 2nd International Conference on
Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I) (pp. pp. 868-874). Noida:
IEEE. doi:10.1109/IC3I.2016.7918804
G. P. Dias and
H. Gomes. (2014). “Evolution of local e-government maturity in
Portugal”. 2014 9th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and
Technologies (CISTI) (pp. pp. 1-5). Barcelona: IEEE.
doi:10.1109/CISTI.2014.6877041
Lana Bataineh,
Emad Abu-Shanab. (2016). “How perceptions of E-participation levels
influence the intention to use E-government websites”, Transforming
Government: People, Process and Policy. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/TG-12-2015-0058
Morabito V.
(2015). Big Data and Analytics for Government Innovation. Springer,
Cham. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10665-6_2
 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2 – Literature Review

2.1
Introduction
The aim of the literature review is to find and evaluate the current approaches
in the area of the electronic-governing and related areas within the background
of services of local government not only in the Philippines but also on the
other countries, and also identified and aided the gaps of the previous
literature and research. The purpose of this chapter is to ease the researcher
and the reader to understand how the research is made and polished the research
ideas. The literature review also help on making the research question for this
study.

2.2 Developmental
Research
The purpose of the developmental research is to evaluate the progress of the
literature and research of the existing electronic governing solution in contrast
of significance of each research. The research eases to use for the
developmental of a new solution with the use of the gaps within the research
and literatures.

2.3 (Empirical Research)
According to 1, 2, 5 and 6, they conducted a research on Local
Governments to identify critical issues of the society to facilitate the local
government in maintaining the positive momentum of the quality of the
government services. The aim of the studies was to learn from the governing approaches
of the current local governments. The researches explore current performance in
delivering a good quality of services on the Local Governments.

The preliminary
exploration of the current situation in approaches of the Governments 1. The
preparation of the evolution of local government into a newly dimension of
electronic services 5, it highlights the challenges to the researchers in finding
and developing solution to the current problems using Information Technology.
And what is the perspective of the policy maker towards the approaches of the E-government
2, the study helps the researcher to know what are the constraint from the government
law that must obey, and the ethics and policy of Information technology on developing
and researching.

The research
4 highlight the similarities and dissimilarities of each electronic local
governments, and how the modified PeGI (Pemeringkatan e-Government Indonesia – PeGI) ensures the quality of evaluating
each LGUs by considering more detailed judgement to describe the distinctness
of each of the local government.

3

Based on
transparency and accountability according to 3 are essential part in
democratic governments, nationally and locally. The transparency and
accountability issue are the main problem of the municipalities, the research
aims to answer the questionable stop that makes the government deficiency in
accountability and transparency. The researcher’s findings are that the
governments are more reliable, efficient, and effective in delivering services
to the constituents with the new approaches of electronic governing. 

The importance
of Big data in the Government with use of analytics for innovating governing approach.
According to 8, The data inside the government, and the data that protected
by the law, all of this have a potential pattern drawn for innovation of the
government.

The use of E-government website
on how the constituent’s perception meets the electronic services 7. The
solution proposed efficiency, fast and effectiveness evaluation methodology
based on the ISO 9126 software quality standard. It helps
the hierarchy of the model by introducing some of the features the reflect the
software’s attributes. The study’s scope of methodology is to evaluate efficiency, fast and effectiveness of the application, some
of the ISO/IEC-9126 characteristic are not fit in their purposes. More specifically,
Reliability, Usability, Functionality and Efficiency. The results of the
study show that the methodology proposed by the researchers has meet the
evaluation’s quality with the use of the ISO 9126.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3
– SYNTHESIS

In this
chapter the researchers will defined the sources