IntroductionEarthquake is a disaster which can affect whole world because the range of damage is very wide. Especially in Japan, many natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunami occur. Among numerous earthquakes, the biggest earthquake in Japan was 2011 tohoku earthquake. This was also 5th biggest in world history.
This is happened in tohoku, Japan. Global attention focused on this Japan 2011 Tohoku disaster, because it has a lot of effects in many ways. Cause of Japan 2011 Tohoku earthquake The biggest earthquake in Japan is occurred in 2011. The size was a magnitude 9.0, and it took 6 minutes.
The depth was shallow which was 29km. Hypocenter, the underground focus point of an earthquake, was close to the ground where we live. That is why this earthquake was powerful. The main reason why this earthquake happened is plate tectonic movement. Japan is located on four plates which are North American, Pacific, Eurasian and Philippine.
The boundaries of each plate under Japan continent have active movement, leading earthquake and volcano as results. For this Japan 2011 Tohoku Disaster, Pacific Ocean plate and North American plate were the main reasons of this earthquake. As shown in the diagram below, the Pacific Ocean plate was pressed down under the continental plate, carrying plate the islands of Japan.
The downward movement is called subduction. Underneath the two plates, mantle make them collide by convection current. During this movement, subduction, the powerful and potential energy is generated in between two downwards plates. It was frictional heat energy caused by huge slip. The Pacific plate is ramming into North American plate at 8 centimeters a year.
The Pacific plate dives underneath it snagging as it goes. The plate that Japan sits on Pacific plate under the strain. Over decades and centuries, the energy has been build up, because of the movement of the Pacific plate which is a oceanic plate towards the North American plate which is a continental plate.When energy caused by subduction is suddenly released, the Pacific plate spring up and immense wave shock cause an earthquake.
This is called mega thrust earthquake which occur at subduction places at destructive plate boundaries. (“Megathrust Earthquake.” What Is a Megathrust Earthquake?, 10 Nov. 2017)Secondary effects – tsunami The secondary effects were there in Japan in several ways. The most representative effect of this earthquake is tsunami, which moves with very fast speed. When the North American plate spring up, the explosive energy lifted a six kilometer deep mass of water upwards to the surface of the sea, and it leaded tsunami Because of this fast speed of shock waves, people and environment in Japan got damaged. Effects on the people After the earthquake, the death of people at 31.3.
2011 was about 13000 , and 17000 reported missing. Therefore, the earthquake affect life of people by destroying people’s living areas. (Death and Missing People. 10 Nov. 2017).
Drown and destruction of building were the main reason of death. More children who attends the school could be damaged with minimum, because the time of earthquake was 2:46 pm when students are in school. Most people was died from tsunami and destruction of buildings. As Japan experiences a lot of earthquakes, they have been built many systems to protect themselves from frequent earthquakes.
The building design make their buildings to be stable and safe against strong oscillation. Early warning system through quick prediction of earthquakes also helped many people to escape from dangerous places. Thus, the total damage was quite minimum compared to huge magnitude of the earthquake. Statistic AEarthquake made losses of economy.
Totally, Japan lost about 16.9 trillion yen. The destruction of buildings, infrastructure. The economic damage also affect people’s lives. According to this statistic A, damage on buildings which includes people’s homes is the biggest loss of economy. This means that people lost their homes and their properties.
According to the Japanese government, because of the earthquake, more than 120,000 buildings were destroyed, 278,000 were half-destroyed and 726,000 were partially destroyed.Not only this, the damage of utilities which give people electricity, water, and gas affected agriculture. People who use a lot of water, especially farmers got damaged about their farm works. Effects on the environment The earthquake also has effect on environment. Destruction by debris and earthquake was the physical damage to the Nuclear power plant Fukushima. The resultant radiation contamination has spread across the Pacific to even as far as South America. The ocean’s surface served as an effective mode of transportation for radioactive debris.
Not only this, according to this map, several ocean currents make radioactive debris be spreaded faster. This nuclear disaster basically rendered areas around it inhabitable for a long time. Also, contaminants are hard to be removed. The fishes and plants under the sea has contaminated by this radioactive debris.
Eventually, the environment of sea has been polluted by radioactive materials.Global effectsAfter the earthquake, the tsunami waves also moved across the Pacific, reaching Alaska, Hawaii and Chile. According to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, In Chile where is far 11,000 miles (17,000 km) from Japan, the tsunami was 6.6 feet (2 meters) high when they reached the shore. The effect of tsunami was exerting the strength.The increase of water carried about 5 million tons of debris out to sea, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency has reported.
Japanese debris such as ships and a lot of household items, have reached on U.S. and Canadian shores in the following years. Likewise, the earthquake has affected the wide range of world globally.