communication is used to promote or advertise something to someone. It can be
product of the company or a service which are provided by the organization. But
the effect of words of mouth travels in both way negative and positive. It only
depends to whom you are communicating to. The personality and your relations
with other person decides the balance of WOM. Positive WOM communication has
been recognized as a particularly valuable vehicle for promoting a firm’s
products and services. Even with the renewed interest in WOM communication,
antecedents to WOM have received little attention (Anderson, 1998). Organizations
would understand now, that giving the employees incentives and rewards are the
best way to promote your business. The nature of person is to discuss each and
everything happening to him with someone. This is WOM action. This cause the
opportunity for employee-customer relational bonds to influence customer.
The bonding between
employees and customers has been so successful in spreading positive WOM
communication that Organization has no need to spend more money on advertising and
promotions. In this study, we hypothesize the interpersonal relationships
between employees and customers and they can significantly influence positive
WOM communication. For many services, an important component of the offering is
the interpersonal interaction between employees and customers (Czepiel and
Gilmore, 1987; Surprenant and Solomon, 1987). Study will examine that as a
customer’s trust increases in a specific employee, positive WOM communication
about the organization is more likely to increase. So in this study model shows
the trust is linked with three dimensions, familiarity, care and connections
among employee and customers.
In this study, we
hypothesize and empirically test the proposition that interpersonal relationships
between employees and customers can significantly influence positive WOM
communication. For many services, an important component of the offering is the
interpersonal interaction between employees and customers (Czepiel and Gilmore,
1987; Surprenant and Solomon, 1987) or what Gremler and Brown (1996) refer to
as “interpersonal bonds.” Scholars have suggested that customers who are
members of a firm’s “social network” (Reingen and Kernan, 1986) or are in
situations where “relationship closeness” exists (Colgate andDanaher,1999) are
more likely to engage in WOM behavior. One key dimension of the
employee-customer relationship is interpersonal trust, or “confidence in an
employee’s reliability and integrity” (adapted from Morgan and Hunt, 1994). We
contend that as a customer’s trust increases in a specific employee (or
employees), positive WOM communication about the organization is more likely to
increase. In proposed model, study argue that such trust is a consequence of
three other interpersonal relationship dimensions: familiarity between
employees and customers, a personal connection between employees and customers
(Gremler and Gwinner, 2000), and care displayed by employees (Dubinsky,1994;Lewis,
1991;Surprenantand Solomon, 1987). That is, a customer’s trust in a specific
employee is likely to form if the employee and customer are well known to each
other, a personal connection is present in the relationship, and the employee
has demonstrated genuine care and concern for the customer’s well-being.
Finally, study contend that both personal connection and care are consequences
of employee familiarity of customers (Rafaeli, 1989; Zeithaml, 1981). A better
understanding of the conditions that facilitate positive WOM communication,
such as the relationships proposed above, can provide managers with insight as
to how to best stimulate such behavior.
among employees and customers produces strong bond. This is the first step of
struggle where we start relations with someone. Employees behavior effect a
lot. It is not organization but the employees who show the image of
organization in a very well way. There are different types of relationships
among employees and customers. Formal relations are with the clients that meet
one time and we put such impressions on them that they would like to visit
again. It does not count the usual meetings. It is simply like that someone
enter in organization and you deal with him/her in a very well way.
are the relations that you already know someone and then you talk with them
about the organization or your seniors. If you will share some positive moments
with them they will feel good and the impression of the company will increase
in their eye. You don not lie in personal relations about the organizations
because of the causal behavior with your family and friends.
Familiarity can be
define as the customer’s perception that the employee has personal recognition of
the customer and knows specific details about his/her service needs. Familiarity
is caused when there is certainly frequent communication mode on between two
people, suppose you go to cafeteria of you university on daily basis, there is
bond which form between you and waitress. Or might be you go to walk on weekend
and there you wave hand to unknown person one time, then again and then again.
It forms a relation. More time we sit or talk with someone we mean to get personal’
knowledge gained about that individual. In the end you start caring about that
person to whom you meet on non-regular basis.
H1: Familiarity positively influences perceptions of care.
H2: Familiarity positively influences the development of
a personal connection.
H3: Familiarity positively influences perceptions of trust
in the employee.
Care is the
customer’s perception of the employee having genuine concern for the customer’s
wellbeing. Care means to show your concern for someone that you are really into
her. And you want to know about his/her health. In this case care means to your
clients or customers who did not visit your organization for a long time. Usually
people do call them and ask about their health and see if they are not well
they visit them or send flowers just to show concern that we are still with you
and we want you to come back to us. Or on otherwise if employee see the bonding
of customers are getting low on your side and customer is shifting to other
side, employee do call them on lunch or dinner or provide them some unique
services that will not let the customer go from the hand. This will all happens
not with the action but with the words of the mouth. Personal connection as a
strong sense of affiliation or bond based on some tie. We often hear in
everyday language phrases like “I really connected with him” or “we really
clicked”. Despite the adage that “opposites attract,” connections are often
based upon having some common attribute (such as personality or attitudes) or
interests (e.g. growing up in the same neighborhood, being avid hikers) with
another party (Duck, 1994).
H4: Caring behaviors positively influence perceptions of
trust on the employee.
H5: A personal connection positively influences
perceptions of trust on the employee.
H6: Trust has a positive influence on word-of-mouth
mouth (WOM) promotion is based on the principle of pull marketing. It relies on
the transmission of a positive marketing message from person to person through
conversation or a personal communication such as email or text message. Pull
marketing gets consumers to bring other consumers to the product. In contrast,
push marketing uses above-the-line promotional techniques to put products in
front of consumers in order to generate sales.
Bull extensively uses pull marketing. This approach involves getting consumers
excited about the product and conveying this excitement to their family and
friends. It is also about trying to get coverage of Red Bull events in the
press. This coverage can encourage consumers to find out more about the
product. It helps to generate momentum, through creating interesting stories
for people to talk about, which in turn help to create brand awareness and grow
sales. The founder of Red Bull used pull marketing to promote his original
product in the 1980s. He hired a Red Bull Wings Team to go out and talk to
people one-to-one about the product. This helps to create consumer interest in
the product. As people experience the drink and appreciate its qualities, they
become advocates for the brand. They share their opinions with other consumers
when they talk with friends. The promotion therefore creates a ripple effect.