IntroductionThe topic I chose for my ISU presentation is militarization of police in North America. The English Patient begins in a villa in Italy in 1945 – the end of WWII. The first character introduced is a Canadian nurse named Hana who lives there, taking care of the English patient. Later in the novel, it is revealed that the English patients name is Almasy, who explored the North African desert from 1930 until 1939. One day, Hana, is playing piano when a soldier hears it and enters. The soldier is an Indian Sikh named Kip, who worked as a sapper (which is a bomb-defuser) in the British army. Before Hana had arrived at the villa, the Germans had retreated but as they did they left bombs hidden throughout the countryside. Kip was going to defuse the bombs. Throughout the novel, Kip and Hana become lovers, and Kip and the English patient form a friendship. However, the atomic bomb being dropped in Japan led to the end of Hana and Kip’s relationship and Kip and the English Patient’s relationship. Because Kip was in the army, I used the military as the basis of my ISU presentationThesisThe militarization of police in North America has a predominantly negative effect on society as seen through its ability to prompt civil disobedience Play VideoEffects of Increase in WeaponsThe first claim I’m making is that the increase in weapons has created an environment in which civil disobedience is bound to happen. How large is the increase in weaponry?The National Defense Authorization Act in 1996, allowed the defense secretary to give police departments/law enforcement extra military equipment. Over 20 years, the Defense Department made a lot of transfers. “Between 2006 and 2014, law enforcement agencies received an array of military equipment worth over $1.5 billion: more than 6,000 mine-resistant, ambush-protected vehicles (MRAPs), 79,288 assault rifles, 205 grenade launchers, 11,959 bayonets, 50 airplanes, 422 helicopters, and $3.6 million in camouflage and other “deception equipment.” The data was calculated from 4 states – Connecticut, Maine, Nevada, and New Hampshire. All the counties within those states were analyzed and included in the data. When a county has a great increase in military equipment, more than two times as many civilians are likely to die the following year. ActivityFor this activity, everyone needs to pretend to be police officers, with access to military grade weapons. On the screen are 4 options and after I read each case study, move to the corner that defines how you would act. Case #1 – 40 year old Jennifer, Should react with Non-Deadly or Deadly ForceCase #2 – 22 year old Martin, Should react with Arrest or Physical RestraintCase #3 – Early 20s year old Joseph, Should react with Non-Deadly or Deadly ForceKilling AnimalsWhile police officers actions are subject to interpretation, their decision to kill animals is less so. Officers often say that they felt “threatened” by the animal and are most often not punished. Police departments are offered free training by groups that advocate for animals rights – but they often turn it down. In contrast, the US Postal service comes into contact with dogs regularly and rarely have any attacks. They are trained in how to respond with themWhat are “Warriors” and “Guardians”?”Guardians” are officers who focus on protecting the victims of society, rather than focusing on punishing the culprit. “Warriors” are culturally someone who has returned from a tour in Iran, Afghanistan, or some other country. 19% of police officers are “Warriors”. These veterans or “Warriors” are quicker to resort to force in policing situations. The Albuquerque Police Force, specifically, has been cited by the Justice Department for their high rates of shootings. Warrior vs Guardian Mindset – Inability to Become GuardiansIn Boston, Massachusetts for every 100 cops with some military service, there were more than 28 complaints of excessive use of force from 2010 through 2015 . For every 100 cops with no military service, there were fewer than 17 complaints. Police Commissioner, William B. Evans said, “we try to culturalize and de-sensitize these veterans, teach them about unconscious bias, de-escalation tactics”. In Miami, Florida based on data from 2013 through 2015, for every 100 veterans on the force, 14 complaints were filed. For every 100 officers without military service, 11 complaints were filed. The veterans continue to respond with violence, proving they cannot assimilate, and they are getting to many weaponsConclusion/So What?Examples in the Real WorldMPD used flashbang grenades to raid the apartment of Rickia Russell in an attempt to search for drugs. The grenade gave her burns on her head and legs – and no drugs were found. Police departments must love to use grenade launchers because they were also used in a different search for drugs in Cornelia, Georgia. A SWAT team threw one into a playpen in a house, giving a 19-month baby permanent damage to his face. On Jan. 2011, in California a man named Rogelio Serrato died during the Occupy Wall Street Protests. A flashbang grenade was launched into his house. What can the government do?The government can implement police training. In Salt Lake City, the police department decided to implement police training so they know how to de-escalate situations. The policy was implemented in 2015, and ever since then there has been no police-caused deaths. The government can also create rules and regulations in order to determine the military equipment can be used appropriately. Police departments should not be able to purchase military equipment without just reasoning. The government also needs to create consequences if the military equipment is used in an improper manner. The most extreme consequence would be jail time – in which police officers are not exempt even though they enforce the law. If the crime that someone commits is less extreme, than the consequence would also be less extreme – probably resulting in suspension or a loss of a job. It is important to remember the different roles that police and the military play in societyWorks CitedWeichselbaum, Simone, and Beth Schwartzapfel. “When Warriors Put on the Badge.” The Marshall Project, 22 Nov. 2017, www.themarshallproject.org/2017/03/30/when-warriors-put-on-the-badgeWelch, Ryan, and Jack Mewhirter. “Analysis | Does Military Equipment Lead Police Officers to Be More Violent? We Did the Research.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 30 June 2017, www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/06/30/does-military-equipment-lead-police-officers-to -be-more-violent-we-did-the-research/?utm_term=.86ce0c0e211b.”Militarization of Police.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Jan. 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militarization_of_police.