DEFINE SOCIAL CAPITAL
REFERS TO TRUST AND COOPERATION WHICH MAKES COLLECTIVE ACTION POSSIBLE AND EFFECTIVE-POLITICAL CULTURE WITH GREAT SOCIAL CAP CREATES BETETR PROBLEM SOLVING DEMOCRACY
DEFINE CIVIL SOCIETY
COMPOSED OF VOLUNTARY, CIVIC, AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS THAT ARE THE FOUNDATION OF A FUNCTIONING SOCIETY-INCLUDE NGO’S, INTEREST GROUPS, SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, ETC
WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIVIL SOCIETY AND SOCIAL CAPITAL
SOCAIL CAP FORMS THE BASIS FOR A STRONG CIVIL SOCIETY. BY CREATING TRUST AND BETWORKS OF PEOPLE WORKING TOGETHER FOR A COMMON GOOD, CIBIL SOCIETY BECOMES A TOOL FOR CITIZENS TO STRENGTHEN DEMOCRACY.
DEFINE LIBERAL DEMOCRACY-FEATURES
DEMOCRACYREPRESENTATIVE GOVFREE AND FAIR ELECTIONSEQUALITY, CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS GUARANTEED AND ENSHRINEDFEATURES: SEPARATION OF POWERS, CHECKS AND BALANCES
ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY?
ELECTORAL DEMOCRACYELECTIONS ARE OFTEN CORRUPT AND MANIPULATEDWEAK OPPOSITION/CIVIL SOCIETYWEAK INSTS: COURTS/PARLIAMENTSLITTLE RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTSDEMOCRACY DOES NOT EXTEND FAR BEYOND ELECTIONS
DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION AND EXAMPLE
INITIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF DEMOCRACY-EMERGENCE3 HISTORIC WAVESEXAMPLE: STATES SUCH AS UKRAINE AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNIST SOVIET UNION
DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION
DEMOCRATIC “DEEPENING”WHEN DEMOCRACY PROVIDES AND ACCEPTED FRAMEWORK FOR POLITICAL COMP.

-TURNOVER-ATLEAST AFTER 2 ELECTIONSA PARTICULAR SET OF INSTS BECOMES THE ONLY SET, AND NO ONE CAN IMAGINE ACTING OUTSIDE THE DEMOCRATIC INSTS.

CONCEPT OF GLOBALIZATION
A PROCESS IN WHICH THE CONSTRAINTS OF GEOGRAPHY ON SOCIAL AND CULTURAL AGREEMENTS RECEDE AND IN WHICH PEOPLE BECOME INCREASINGLY AWARE THAT THE ARE RECEDING.
BENEFITS OF GLOBALIZATION TO THE STATE
TRANSNATIONAL MOVEMENTSREGIONALISM (UN?)STRONGER CIVIL SOCIETYINGO’SGLOBAL MARKET
DRAWBACKS OF GLOBALIZATION
LOSS OF STATE AUTONOMYTRANSNATIONAL TERROR MOVEMENTSDISEASELOSS OF STATE SOVEREIGNTY MULTI-NATIONAL CORPSLOSS OF CONTROL OVER MARKET
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ELECTORAL SYSTEMS
PLURALITY: WHICHEVER PARTY.CAND WON THE MOST VOTESMAJORITY: WINNER MUST WIN OVER 50% OF THE VOTEPROP. REP: % OF VOTES=% OF SEATS, SINGLE TRANSFERABLE VOTE(STV)MIXED METHOD: COMBINES GEOGRAPHIC REP WITH PARTY REP, PR AND PLURALITY METHODS
PLURALITY: ADVS, DISADS
ADVS: MODERATION, 2 PARTY SYSTEM, STABLE GOVDIS: WASTED VOTES, LITTLE MINORITY REP
MAJORITY: ADVS, DISADS
ADVS: ENSURE A QUALIFIED MAJ, LESS WASTED VOTES, STABLE GOVDIS: COMPLICATED, LITTLE MINORITY REP
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION (PR)ADS AND DISADS
ADVS: REPRESENTATION, SOCIETAL CONSENSUSDISADV: UNSTABLE GOV, DISPROPORTIONATE POWER TO SMALL PARTIES
DEFINE PARTY SYSTEMS
COMPOSED OF SETS OF PARTIES THAT COMPETE AND COOPERATE WITH THE AIM OF INCREASING THEIR POWER IN CONTROLLING THE GOVONLY IN DEMOCRACIES
NAME 3 TYPES OF PARTY SYSTEMS/VOTING SYSTEMS THEY CORRESPOND TO
DOMINANT: ONE PARTY-ANY SYSTEM2 PARTY-PLURALITY, MAJORITYMULTI-PARTY: PR, CONSOCIATIONALISM OR POWER SHARING, COALITION GOV
DEFINE SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
GROUPS WHICH ARE PART OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND CONNECTED TO POLITICAL PARTICIPATIONTHINK “INSIDERS” -THOSE WITHIN THE GOV AND…”CHALLENGERS”-SOCIAL MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE OUTSIDE SEEKING TO CHALLENGE THE SYSTEMPEOPLE WITH A COMMON OBJECTIVE/WORLD VIEW, WHO COME TOGETHER TO CHALLENGE THE ESTABLISHED ORDER
FEATURES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
COLLECTIVE ACTIONS: SIT-INS, MARCHES, BOYCOTTS, STRIKES, DEMONSTRATIONS-EXTRA PARLIAMENTARY ACTIVITYNOT TIGHTLY ORGANIZED LINKED INTEREST GROUPSMEMBERS SHARE BROAD IDEOLOGICAL STANCE-NO FORMAL MEMBERSHIP
DEFINE INTEREST GROUPS: WHAT ARE 2 TYPES
ORGANIZATIONS WHICH HAVE SOME AUTONOMY FROM GOV OR POLITICAL PARTIES-TRY TO INFLUENCE PUBLIC POLICYINTERPOSED BETWEEN CIVIL SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT2 TYPES: PROMOTIONAL AND PROTECTIVE
HOW FO INTEREST GROUPS INFLUENCE THE GOV?
MAKE POLICY RELATED APPEALS TO THE GOV/ REGIONALLY LOBBYINGINTEREST (OR PRESSURE GROUPS) ARE GROUPS WHICH SEEK TO INFLUENCE, RATHER THAN CONTROL, GOV POLICY-ESTABLISH CHANNELS TO INFLUENCE
DEFINE A NATION STATE:
STATE WITHIN TERRITORIAL BOUNDARIES ORGANIZED AROUND SHARED ETHNIC OR HISTORICAL ROOTS SHARED LANGUAGE, CULTURE, HISTORY OR TERRITORY
2 THEORIES OF THE ORIGINS OF A NATION?
ROOTS OF NATIONALISM: PRIMORDIALIST/CONSTRUCTIVISTSCONSTRUCTED OR ORGANIC FOUNDATIONS OF NATION-STATESPRIMORDIALIST: FRANCE, SPAIN, ISRAEL?CONSTRUCTIVIST: US CANADA, GERMANY, PALESTINIANS, ISRAEL?
WHAT IS POLITICAL ECONOMY?
REFERS TO THE ARE WHERE POLITICS MEETS ECONOMICSPARTICULAR FOCUS ON ECONOMICAL PLOCIY!!
2 TYPES OF POLITICAL ECONOMIES WITHIN LIBERAL DEMOCRACY?
PLURALISM-FREE MARKET/CAPITALISM AND …CORPORATISM (ORGANIZED , STATE INTERFERANCE)
TYOES OF POLITICAL ECONOMIES IN ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY VS COMMUNIST VS AUTH REGIMES?
ILLIBERAL DEM: DEVELOPMENTAL STATES-COMBINES POWERFUL BUREAUCRACY WHICH FORMULATES NATIONAL POLICY W/ PRIVATE OWNERSHIP PF PRODUCTION EX: ASIAN GIANTSCOMMUNIST STATES: COMAND ECONOMIESAUTH REGIMES; RENTIER STATES, PATRONAGE RELATIONSHIP
3 DIFF LEVELS OF COMPARISON/ANALYSIS
INSTITUTION CENTERED: PARLIAMENTS, COURTS ETCSOCIETY CENTERED: BEHAVIOUR OF ACTORS WITHIN A SOCIETYSTATE-CENTERED: STATES AS THE MOST IMPORTANT UNIT IN POLITICAL SYSTEM
2 DIFF TYPES OD CASE STUDIES
MOST DIFFERENT: FUNDAMENTALLY DIFF CASES WITH THE SAME STARTING POINT OR OUTCOMEMOST SIMILAR: FUNDAMENTALLY SIMILAR WITH DIFFERENT STARTING POINT OR OUTCOME
TYPES OF DIFF CASE STUDIES
REPRESENTATIVEPROTOTYPICALDEVIANTARCHETYPICALCRITICAL
DEFINE AUTHORITARIAN
NON DEMOCRATIC REGIME LEAD BY A LEADER OR SMALL GROUP WHO MAINTAINS POWER (WITHIN ILL-DEFINED BUT USUALLY PREDICTABLE LIMITS)
AUTHORITARIAN FEATURES
LEADER OR SMALL GROUP RULESPRESENCE OF LIMITED POLITICAL PLURALISMABSENCE OF ELABORATE AND GUIDING IDEOLOGYABSENCE OF INTENSIVE POLITICAL MOBILIZATION
HOW IS AUTH DIFF FROM TOTALITARIANISM? EXAMPLES
IDEOLOGICAL REGIME WITH TOTAL CONTROL OVER THE DAILY LIFE, ACTION AND BEHAVIOUR AND THOUGHTS OF CITIZENSCHARACTERISTICS: ONE PARTY, SYSTEM OF TERROR, MONOPOLY OVER MEDIA, MONOPOLY OVER ARMS, CENTRALLY PLANNED ECONOMYEX: NAZI GERMANY, COMMUNISM UNDER STALIN
WHAT ARE SOCIAL CLEAVAGES?
DIVISIONS WITHIN SOCIETY AROUND WITH POLITICAL IDENTITIES AND LOYALTIES ARE CONSTRUCTED
2 TYPES OF SOCIAL CLEAVAGES WITH SPECIFIC EXAMPLES
CUMULATIVE AND CROSS-CUTTINGEXAMPLES: CENTER-PERIPHERYURBAN-RURALCHURCH-STATEWORKER-EMPLOYEE
3 TYPS OF NON-VIOLENT POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
SOCIAL MOVEMENTSINTEREST GROUPSVOTINGPOLITICAL PARTIES
DEFINE POLITICAL TERRORISM
VIOLENCE OR THREAT OF VIOLENCE WITH THE AIM OF INFLUENCING A TARGET OTHER THAN THE IMMEDIATE VICTIM
WHAT IS A REVOLUTION AND HOW IS IT CAUSED?
SWIFT CHANGE OR OVERTHROW OR A REGIME-CAUSED BY WIDESPREAD SOCIETAL DISCONTENT (RELATIVE DEPRIVATION)-DAVIES J CURVE