‘Islamic State’ wasformed following the invasion of Iraq and the execution of Saddam Hussein1. However, there have been manyother examples of non-state actors operating in the Middle East prior to this. Background on non-state actors.Non-state actors are identifiable as operating outside of traditionalinternationally recognised organisations, such as states. Similarly, non-stateactors are recognised for their use of force to achieve political objectives2 and for the irregularityof its military actions3.

One example of this isthrough the ‘Islamic State’ is known for their use of the internet for a numberof purposes, exampleWhilst internationallaw continues to be dominated by the influence of States, The role of non-stateactors in international conflict has grown significantly in recent years.Groups such as Al-Qaeda and ‘Islamic State’ have demonstrated the shift ininternational conflict to continue.However, it is necessary to assess whether the response to non-state actors hasevolved quickly enough to adequately tackle the changing landscape ofinternational conflict. Traditionally, thekey legislative piece dictating the international response to threats posed bynon-states actors was expandThe internet”provides a basis for planning, command, control and communication amongdiffuse groups”4expand. One ofthe key issues expandDifficult to trace, lack of cohesive laws in investigating the use of theinternet by terrorist organisations and an incoherent network for sharinginformation between states.

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5 expand2007 – three men werecharged with the Incitement of terrorist violence via the internet6 – “inciting another personto commit an act of terrorism wholly or partly outside the United Kingdom whichwould, if committed in England and Wales, constitute murder”7The purpose of thisessay is to critically assess the current international response to ‘IslamicState’ and its limitations, both through its legislative approaches and theattitudes of international bodies such as the United Nations Security Council.This essay will analyse the engagement of ‘Islamic State’ through their use oftechnology, such as cyberterrorism, and through other actions such terrorattacks, whilst evaluating the influence of their status as a non-state actorson the attitudes of the response. Finally, this essay will conclude byassessing the limitations of international responses to the threats posed by’Islamic State’, and suggest ways in which this may change in future.1 https://csuchico-dspace.calstate.edu/bitstream/handle/10211.3/180576/Binzafran_Duaa_thesis_summer_2016.pdf?sequence=1p.82 Thesituation regarding non-military actors in the middle east3 Thesituation regarding non-military actors in the middle east4https://www.jstor.org/stable/25659982?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=cyberterrorism&searchText=islamic&searchText=state&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dcyberterrorism%2Bislamic%2Bstate&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contentsp.1125https://www.jstor.org/stable/29762975?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=cyberterrorism&searchText=islamic&searchText=state&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dcyberterrorism%2Bislamic%2Bstate&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contentsp.2976 http://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/documents/reports/FATF%20Terrorist%20Financing%20Typologies%20Report.pdf7Terrorism Act 2000opposition to most military doctrines of regular armies.