John Holland
Who’s theory has been described as “structural-interactive”
  1. ;realistic
  2. ;investigative
  3. ;artistic;
  4. ;social
  5. ;enterprising
  6. ;conventional
What are the six “types” Holland characterized people as?
;

  1. Exercise skills and abilities.
  2. Express attitudes and values.
  3. Take on agreeable problems or roles.
According to Holland, people search for environments that will do what three things?
An interaction between personality and the characteristics of an environment.
According to Holland, a persons behavior is determined by what key factor?
;

  1. genetics
  2. environment
According to Holland,;what is personality based on?
Explicit, ordered, or systematic manipulation of tools, machines, and animals.
According to Holland, the realistic personality typeprefers activities that entail what?
Educational or therapeutic activities.

According to Holland, the realistic personality type

has an aversion to what?
  1. Auto Mechanic
  2. Aircraft Controller
  3. Surveyor
  4. Farmer
  5. Electrician
According to Holland, the realistic personality type

prefers jobs such as?
Observational, symbolic, systematic, and creative investigation of physical, biological, and cultural phenomena in order to understand such;phenomena
According to Holland, the investigative personality type;prefers activities that entail what?
Persuasive, social, and repetitive activities.
According to Holland, the investigative personality type;has an aversion to what?
  1. Biologist
  2. Chemist
  3. Physicist
  4. Anthropologist
  5. Geologist
  6. Medical Technologist
According to Holland, the investigative personality type;prefers jobs such as?
Ambiguous, free, unsystematized activities that entail manipulation of physical, verbal, or human materials to create art forms or products.
According to Holland, the artistic personality type;prefers activities that entail what?
Explicit systematic and ordered activities.
According to Holland, the artistic personality type;has an aversion to what?
  1. Composer
  2. Musician
  3. Stage Director
  4. Writer
  5. Interior Decorator
  6. Actor/Actress
According to Holland, the artistic personality type;prefers jobs such as?
The manipulation of others to inform, train, develop, cure, or enlighten.
According to Holland, the social personality type;prefers activities that entail what?
Explicit, ordered, and systematic activities involving materials, tools, or machines.

According to Holland, the social personality type;has an aversion to what?
  1. Teacher
  2. Religious Worker
  3. Counselor
  4. Clinical Psychologist
  5. Psychiatric Case Worker
  6. Speech Therapist
According to Holland, the social personality type;prefers jobs such as?
The manipulation ;of others to attain organizational or economic gain.
According to Holland, the enterprising personality type;prefers activities that entail what?
Observational, symbolic, and systematic activities.
According to Holland, the enterprising personality type;has an aversion to what?
;

  1. Salesperson
  2. Manager
  3. Business Executive
  4. Television Producer
  5. Sports Promoter;
  6. Buyer

;

According to Holland, the enterprising personality type;prefers jobs such as?
Explicit, ordered, and systematic manipulation of data, such as keeping records filing materials, reproducing materials.
According to Holland, the conventional personality type;prefers activities that entail what?
Ambiguous, free, exploratory, unsystematized activities.
According to Holland, the conventional personality type;has an aversion to what?
  1. Bookkeeper
  2. Stenographer
  3. Financial Analyst
  4. Banker
  5. Cost Estimator
  6. Tax Expert
According to Holland, the conventional personality type;prefers jobs such as?
Congruence describes the degree of fit between an individuals personality type and their current or prospective work environment.

According to Holland, what is congruence?
A social type working as a counselor.
What is one example of congruence?
Incongruence is when individuals are in environments that do not match their personality type.
According to Holland, what is incongruence?
A social type working as an auto mechanic.

What is one example of incongruence?
The degree of directness among types representing a person’s personality profile. ;
According to Holland, what is differentiation?
The degree of relatedness within types.
According to Holland, what is consistency?
More integration and/or harmony regarding traits, interests, values, and perceptions.
;According to Holland, higher degrees of consistency within personality types suggests what?
Possession of a clear and stable picture of one’s goals, interests, and talent.
What is vocational Identity?
Acquiring sufficient occupational and self-information.
What is vocational Identity dependent on?
Congruence, differentiation, consistency, and vocational identity.
What are the four key theoretical constructs used to link Holland’s theory?
Self-Directed Search (SDS);
What is the most widely used interest inventory?
John Holland
Who’s theory has generated more research than any other model of career choice?
  1. Consistency
  2. Differentiation
Research support for the relationship between ___________ and___________ to vocational outcomes has been week.
  1. Ryan
  2. Tracy
  3. Rounds
Who studied the “genteralizability” of Holland’s vocational interests across ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)?
No difference
Ryan and her colleagues found _____________ in the structure of interest between low and high SES groups?
  1. Low SES African American group
  2. High;SES African American group
According to Ryan and her colleagues, the ;___________ was better fit by Holland’s model than the ___________.
True
True or FalseIt has been concluded that Holland’s model is generalizable across ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status as defined by Ryan and her colleagues study.