Preparation Stage of Classroom Planning
The teacher makes preteaching decisions about classroom variables.
Learning theory
Teachers enter the classroom with a set of assumptions about how learing occurs. Based on these instructions they plan instruction.
Behavioral Approach
The teacher sees the classroom from an external standpoint and assumes that learning occurs because of something that a teacher does to the student.

Developmental Learning Theory
This theory focuses instruction on the needs and developmental stages of growth in the student. These teachers believe that student motivation comes from trying to fulfill certain tasks of growing up.
Perceptual Learning Theory
This theory holds a broad view of classroom interaction. They believe the student, not the teacher, is the key to learning.
6 Appealing Factors of the K-8 Model of Schooling.
Greater parental choicePromise of better testing achievementsperceived cost effectivenesssmaller learning environmentslowered scondary school dropout ratesability to retain community support
Grouping
The instructional technique that provides instruction based on individual differences.
Invented Spelling
Method in which students write how they think a word is spelled and check it later. Allows students to concentrate on what they are trying to communicate.

Traditional Method of Spelling
Students memorize 10 to 20 words a week. Students are tested on their spelling rather than their ability to apply rules to new words.
The Integrated Approach to Teaching Science.
This approach moves science away from lectures and textbooks to a variety of materials and activities that incorporate reading, writing, and mathematics while science concepts are being developed.
How is Social Studies used in Elementary classrooms?
Teach critical thinkingDevelop civic responsibilityBuild self-conceptImprove human relationships
Citizenship Education
Young children are active participants in examining political feelings and social issues, as well as historical and geographical understanding.

How does Physical Education improve students?
Physical education includes adaptive and developmental activities that lead to better coordination and psychomomtor skills.
Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder
Defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a child that exhibits 8 or more of 14 symptoms that reflect difficulties in attention, impulsivity, or motor hyperactivity with onset before age 17.
Inclusion
Keeping special education students in regular education classrooms and taking support services to teh children rather than bringing them to support services.
6 Categories of Determining Gifted Children
General intellecutal abilitySpecific academic aptitudeCreative or productive thinkingLeadership abilityAbility in the visual or performing artsPsychomotor ability
Developmentally Appropriate
Set by the National Association for the Education of Young Children. It is the process in which the curriculum and instructional methods are developmentally appropriate for children 5 through 8 years of ages.

Integrated Instructional Systems (IIS)
Replacess older computer-assisted instruction (CIA) systems. IIS links computer lessons to accepted standard curricula and provides an intergration often missing in CIA programs.
Cooperative Learning
Learning technique in which children are trained to use one another as resources for learning.
5 Organizational Patterns found in Elementary Classrooms.
Self-contained classroomsgrade level teamscross grade teamstotal ungraded structureor a combination of these patterns
Vertical Organization
Refers to the movement of students from grade to grade or level to level.
Horizontal Organization
Refers to the grouping of students within a grade or level and the assignment of teachers to a a grade or level.

Least Restrictive Environment
The most appropriate educational environment for children with disabilities. Mandated by PL 94-142
4 Factors Determining An English Language Learner (ELL) Student.
– Student not born in the United States and whose native language3 is not English.- Student who comes from a home environment where a language other than English is spoken.- Student who is an American Indian or Alaskan Native and who comes from an environment where a language other than English has a significant impact on his or her level of English language proficiency- Student who for the above reasons, has difficulty listening, speaking, reading, or writing in English, to the extent that he or she is unable to learn successfully in classrooms where English is the language of instruction.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
Children who exhibit these characteristics- difficulty remaining seated- calling out without request- interrupting others- talking excessively