shaping
a child is rewarded for successful approximation of a target skill
overcorrection
effective in reducing self-stimulation and repetitive movements
fading
gradual change over successive trials of a stimulus that controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus
response cost
a stimulus is taken away as a consequence of behavior and the effect is to reduce the frequency of the behavior.
dri
direct reinforcement of the individual
extinction
withholding or removing a stimulus that reinforces a maladaptive behavior
fixed ratio schedule
response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses–end stages
fixed interval
where the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed
chaining
the reinforcement of successive elements of a behavior
ellis’s abc model
three components of experience in which a person can ascertain if his or her belief system is distorted–how WE perceive things is the key
glasser’s reality therapy
clients seek to discover what they really want and whether what they are currently doing (how they are choosing to behave) is actually bringing them nearer to, or further away from, that goal; students use alternative behavior plans to help them reach goals
PL 94-142
Same as IDEA-1975
PL 99-457
amended IDEA to give procedural rights and safeguards for the individual; provided guidelines for and IFSP (Individualized Family Service Plan); IEP; benefits for kids from birth to age 5-2004
PL 101-476
added autism and traumatic brain injury it IDEA-1990
ADA
prohibits discrimination based on disability-1990
IDEA
ensures services to children with disabilities-1975
conduct disorder
poor moral development, lack of empathy, behavioral excesses like aggression
depresssion
school refusal, obsessive-compulsive disorders, psychosis, and separation anxiety–difficult to diagnose in kids because symptoms differ from adults
ESE
exceptional student ed
REI
regular ed initiative; merge spec and reg ed into one
privilege
free time, candy
right
lunch, bathroom
entitlement
recess, attending school events
morphology
smallest units of language that convey meaning
syntax
grammar
pragmatics
speaker’s intent; influence actions or attitudes of others
semantics
language content: objects, actions, and relations between objects
conduct disorder
temper tantrums, disruption of class, disobedience, and bossiness
personality disorder
social withdrawal, anxiety, depression, shyness, and guilt
phonology
system of rules about sound and sound combinations for a language
phoneme
the smallest unit of sound that combines with other sounds to make words
chaining
The skill to be learned is broken down into small units for easy learning
continuous reinforcement
the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs; best used during the initial stages of learning
variable ratio schedule
response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses–intermediate stages
section 504
designed to eliminate discrimination on the basis of disability–1973
self-recording
Sam marks his sheet with an X each time he meets his goal
self-evaluation
Sam records his performance rating of 0-3
self-reinforcement
Sam chooses his reinforcer and says “I deserve this”
emotional disturbance
general mood of depression or unhappiness, tendency to develop physical symptoms, inability to learn
clustering
the exhibition of 2 or more types of problem behaviors across different area of functioning
socialized agression
truancy, gang membership
rational emotional therapy
focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and enabling people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives; (same as Ellis a-b-c)