Constructivism
suggests that learners construct knowledge based on background information and connections that can be made between ideas, facts, and concepts. 
Howard Gardner
Howard Gardner developed the theory of multiple intelligences. Multiple intelligence may be the more accurate view of learning disabilities. 
Multiple Intelligences
Theory developed by Howard Gardner, states that people can have a number of intelligence’s or areas that they are strong in. As opposed to what testing focuses on, linguistic and logical-mathematics, people with LD may frequently more gifted in other areas, for example musically.;
Differentiated Instruction
offers the opportunity for general and special ed teachers to revitalize their instruction by incorporating a wider variety of teaching techniques in their classrooms.;
Brain-compatible learning
Suggests that there are several additional phases of memory besides long-term and short-term/working memory.

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Response to Intervention;
A procedure to document student’s learning disability. Can include evidence of how a child responds to instructional intervention to determine if a child has a learning disability. 
No Child Left Behind Act
Mandates that all students in public schools, including those with specials needs, be held accountable for their learning and meet state identified education standards. 
Psychological Process Criteria
Cognitive, mental, or psychological processes including perception, attention, and sensory integration. 13 states require measurement of these processes. Can be problematic due to varying opinions on the definition of the processes. 
Exclusionary Criteria
Defines what a disability is not by pointing out things that do not pertain to it.

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Recently added inclusion of children who are culturally deprived or have behavioral disorders. Ties the definition of learning disability to numerous other conditions. 

Discrepancy Criteria 
used to indicate a substantial difference between intelligence, as measured on an IQ test, and achievement in a number of academic subject areas. 
Behavior Perspective
Is a unitary conceptualization of learning disabilities.

Specific academic skills that form the curriculum should be the basis of assessment. 

Daniel Hallahan
Helped deal with the definition and identification problems within learning disabilities.
Madeline Will 
assistant secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services in the Department of Ed In D.C.

She suggested that students with mild disabilities should be served without taking them out of the mainstream. This began inclusion.