Acceleration
adapted programs for students that are gifted and talented which keeps the curriculum the same but allows students to move through it more quickly.
Active teaching
the teacher assumes responsibility for explaining and modeling the idea to be learned.          a teaching strategy for at-risk students where the teacher explains concepts and skills through interactive teaching
Adaptive fit
 the degree to which a student is able to come with the requirements of a school setting and the extent to which the school accommodates the student’s special needs
Assistive technology
 a set of adaptive tools that support students with disabilities in learning activities and daily life tasks
At-risk students
those students in danger of failing to complete their education with the skills necessary to survive in modern society.
Bidialecticism
 the ability to switch back and forth between a dialect and standard English, allows access to both
Bilingual maintenance programs
an English development program to teach in both the native language and English, maintaining and building on the student’s native language.
Cultural deficit theory of learning
the linguistic, social, and cultural backgrounds of minority children prevent them from performing well in the classroom.
Cultural difference theory of learning
attributes academic problems of minority students to cultural differences or discontinuities between home and school
Culturally responsive teaching
 understanding the cultures of the students they teach, communicating positive attitudes about cultural diversity, and employing a variety of instructional approaches that build upon students’ cultural diversity.
Dialect
 a variation of Standard English that is distinct in vocabulary, grammer, or pronunciation
Enrichment
(used in gifted and talented) provides richer and varied content through strategies that supplement usual grade level work.
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
breaks intelligence into eight areas: linguistic-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
Inclusion
a comprehensive approach to educating students with exceptionalities that advocates a total, systematic, and coordinated web of services                                                 3 components1.       including students with special needs in a regular school campus2.       creating appropriate support and services to guarantee an adaptive fit3.       coordination general and special education services
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
outlines an individualizes plan of action for each exceptional student
Components of and IEP
1.       the child’s present levels of education performance2.       Annual goals and short term instructional objectives3.       Specific educational services to be provided4.       The extent to which the child will participate in regular education5.       Projected date for initiation of services6.       Expected duration for those services7.       Objective criteria and evaluation procedures
Intelligence:  three dimensions
          Abstract thinking and reasoning          Problem-solving ability          Capacity to acquire knowledge (aptitude)
Learning styles
your preferred way of learning and studying
Least restrictive environment (LRE)
 one that places students in as normal an educational setting as possible while still meeting their special academic, social and physical needs.
Mainstreaming
 the practice of moving students with exceptionalities from segregated settings into regular classrooms
Metacognition
 student’s awareness of the ways they learn most effectively and their ability to control these factors.
Multicultural education
 examines ways that culture influences learning and attempts to find ways tha students’ cultures can be used to complement and enhance learning.
Resiliency
a learner characteristic that results in a heightened likelihood of success in school and in other aspects of life despite environment adversities.A focus of research in at risk students
Response to intervention (RTI)
a systematic prereferral and early intervention process that consists of universal screening and several tiers of increasingly intensive trials of research-based interventions before referral for assessment for special education eligibility.
Sheltered instruction
(ESL program) designed to provide students with content instruction along with English language development.
Socioeconomic status (SES)
 the combination of parents’ income occupation, and level of education.
Emotional or behavioral disorder
disability characterized by emotional or behavioral responses in school programs different from appropriate age, cultural, ethnic norms that affect educational performance; more than a temporary; expected response to stressful events in the environment.          Exhibited in two different settings at least one of which is school-related          Unresponsive to direct intervention in general education          Condition of the child such that general education interventions would be insufficient
Students who are gifted and talented
are at the upper end of the ability continuum and need special services to reach their full potential.
Students with exceptionalities
are those who require special help to reach their full potential          Result of PL 94-142 (IDEA) passed in 1975 with the goal of ensuring a high-quality, free public education for all students with exceptionalities.
Intellectual disabilities
a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills          Disability originates before age 18 (AAIDD, 2007)          Same population of previously diagnosed mentally retarded
Students with learning disabilities
 have normal intellectual capabilities but have problems with specific classroom tasks such as listening, reading, writing, spelling, or math operations
Students with mild to moderate disabilities
students who learn well enough to remain in the regular classroom but have enough problems with learning to warrant special help.                Subcategories          Mental retardation          Learning disabled          Behaviorally disordered
Teacher expectations
include the attitudes and beliefs that teachers hold about students’ abilities to learn, which then influence student achievement